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    【字源大挪移—讀書筆記】 第二部分:字根

    時間:2015-05-13 00:25:27      閱讀:63916      評論:0      收藏:0      [點我收藏+]

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    [2] 字根:[2.1]表示【否定】的字根、[2.2]表示【方位】的字根、[2.3]表示【程度】的字根、[2.4]表示【狀態】的字根、[2.5]表示【現象】的字根、[2.6]表示【身體】的字根、[2.7]表示【姿勢】的字根、[2.8]表示【心,心里活動】的字根、[2.9]表示【行為動作】的字根、[2.10]表示【感官動作】的字根、[2.11]表示【感覺】的字根、[2.12]表示【生命】的字根、[2.13]表示【死亡】的字根、[2.14]表示【社會】的字根

     

    [2.1]表示【否定】的字根

         -neg-          =     none(否定)
    {
    negative:neg - ative,(none - adj.[n.]),adj:否定的;n:底片;
    negligible:neg - lig - ible,[音:‘sentr?l],(none - chooose - able),adj:可忽略的,微不足道的;
    }
     
    技術分享
    [2.1] 本小節示例及練習
    This kind of fish is not much harvested because it is of negligible commercial value. {harvest:n:收成,收獲,收割,成果,后果;v:收獲,收割;of negligible:傳統語法解釋為of+抽象名詞看做形容詞,其實應該看做the value of this fish改寫為形容詞從句的結果。}
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    [2.2]表示【方位】的字根

         -loc-          =     place(地方)
     
         -medi-       =     middle(中間)
         -mid-         =     middle(中間)
     
         -centr-       =     center(中央)
     
         -circum-    =     around,circle(外圍,圓)
         -cycl-        =     around,circle(外圍,圓)
    {
    location:loc - ation,(place - n.),n:地點;
    locale:loc - ale,[音:lo?‘kæl],(place - n.),n:地點;
    locate:loc - ate,(place - v.),v:找到;
    locomotive:loc - mot - ive,[音:?lo?k?‘mo?t?v],(place - move - n.[adj.]),n:火車頭,推動者;adj:運動的,移動的,火車頭的,旅行的;
    locus:loc - us,(place - n.),n:場所,主要地點;
    allocation:al(ad) - loc - ation,[音:?æl?‘ke??n],(to - place - n.),n:分配;
    collocate:col(com) - loc - ate,[音:‘kɑ?l?ke?t],(together - place - v.),v:搭配,并列,對照,校對;
    dislocate:dis - loc - ate,[音:‘d?slo?ke?t],(away - place - v.),v:脫臼,偏離,錯亂;
    relocate:re - loc - ate,[音:?ri?‘lo?ke?t],(again - place - v.),v:轉移,改至其他地點;
     
    immediately:im - medi - ately,(not - middle - adv.),adv:立即;
    median:medi - an,[音:‘mi?di?n],(middle - adj.),adj:中央的,中間的,正中的,中等的;n:中位數,中值;
    mediation:medi - ation,(middle - n.),n:調停;
    medieval:medi - ev - al,[音:?medi‘i?vl],(middle - age - adj.),adj:中古時期的,中世紀的;
    mediocre:medi - orce,[音:?mi?di‘o?k?r],(middle - peak),adj:平庸的,平凡的; {peak:n:尖端,頂峰;v:達到頂峰,使處于頂點;}
    amid:a - mid,[音:?‘m?d],(at - middle),prep:在……之中(間);
     
    central:centr - al,[音:‘sentr?l],(center - adj.),adj:中心的; {center:n:中心;}
    centrifugal:centri - fug - al,[音:?sen‘tr?fju?ɡl],(center - flee - adj.),adj:離心的; {flee:vi:逃走,消失,逃避,(時間)飛逝;vt:逃離;}
    centripetal:centri - pet - al,[音:sen‘tr?p?tl],(center - seek - adj.),adj:向心的;{seek:vt:尋求,追去,試圖;vt:尋找;}
    concentration:con - centr - at - ion,(加強語氣 - center -  - n.),adj:集中,專注;
    concentric:con - centr - ic,[音:k?n‘sentr?k],(together - center - adj.),adj:同心的,同軸的;
    decentralize:de - centr - al - ize,[音:?di?‘sentr?la?z],(away - center -  -v.),v:(使)權利下放,(使工業、人口等)分散;
    eccentric:ec(ex) - centr - ic,[音:?k‘sentr?k],(out - center - adj.[n.]),adj:怪癖的;n:怪人,我行我素的人;
    egocentric:ego - centr - ic,[音:?i?ɡo?‘sentr?k],(self - center - adj.),adj:自我中心的,利己的;
    geocentric:geo - centr - ic,[音:?d?i?o?‘sentr?k],(earth - center - adj.),adj:以地球為中心的;
    heliocentric:helio - centr - ic,[音:?hi?li?‘sentr?k],(sun - center - adj.),adj:以太陽為中心的;
    theocentric:theo - centr - ic,[音:?θi?o?‘sentr?k],(god - center - adj.),adj:以神為中心的;
     
    bicycle:bi - cycle,(two - circle.),n:自行車;
    circumcise:circum - cise,[音:‘s??rk?msa?z],(around - cut),v:割包皮;
    circumference:circum - fer - ence,[音:s?r‘k?mf?r?ns],(around - bear - n.),n:周長,周圍; {bear:n:熊;v:忍受,負荷,結果,證實,生子女;}
    circumlocution:circum - locu - tion,[音:?s??rk?ml?‘kju??n],(around - speak - n.),n:啰嗦,閃爍其詞;
    circumnavigate:circum - nav - ig(ag) - ate,[音:?s??rk?m‘næv?ɡe?t],(around - sail - act - v.),v:環繞航行,環繞一周; {sail:n:帆,航行,航海;v:航行,駕(船);}
    circumscribe:circum - scribe,(around - write),v:限制;
    circumspect:circum - spect,(around - look),a:謹慎的;
    circumstance:circum - stan - ce,(around - be - n.),n:情況,環境;
    circumvent:circum - vent,[音:?s??rk?m‘vent],(around - come),v:規避,繞行,設法避開,圍住;
    circuit:circu - it,(around - go),n:迂回,電路;
    circuitous:circu - it - ous,[音:s?r‘kju??t?s],(around - it - adj),adj:迂回的,繞行的;
    circulatory:circul - at - ory,[音:‘s??rkj?l?t??ri],(circle -  - adj),adj:循環的,循環系統的; {circle:n:圓圈,圈子,包廂;v:劃圈,包圍,盤旋,環繞;}
    encircle:en - circle,(make - around),v:包圍;
    cycle:cycle,(circle),n:周期;
    cyclic:cycl - ic,[音:‘sa?kl?k],(circle - adj),adj:循環的,周期性的,環形的;
    cyclone:cycl - one,[音:‘sa?klo?n],(circle - n),n:旋風,颶風,氣旋,旋風分離器;
    recycle:re - cycle,(again - circle),v:再生,回收;
    }
     
    技術分享
    [2.2] 本小節示例及練習
    The King and I is more than a stock romance set in an exotic locale. {The King and I:《國王與我》;stock:adj:慣用的,老式的,存貨的;romance:n:浪漫史,愛情故事,傳奇文學;set:n:舞臺,一局比賽;exotic:adj:外來的,異國的,奇異的,脫衣舞的;}
    The bat uses a sonar system to locate its food. {sonar:n:聲吶,聲波定位;}
    Germany has served as a locomotive, with Helmut Kohl as engineer, pulling the rest of Europe toward economic and political union. {serve:v:服務,侍候,擔任,可作……用,度過,對待;n:發球;Helmut Kohl:n:赫爾穆特·科爾;engineer:n:工程師,機(械)師;vt:設計,建造,策劃;}
    The Presidential Hall has traditionally been the locus of political power in Taiwan. {presidential:[音:?prez?‘den?l];adj:總統的,總統制的;hall:n:大廳,禮堂;The Presidential Hall:n:總統府;}
    A chief merit of the capitalist system is that it ensures efficient allocation of resources. {chief:adj:主要的,首要的;n:首領;merit:n:優點,功績,價值;v:值得,應得;capitalist:n:資本家,資本主義者;adj:資本主義的,有資本的;ensure:vt:擔保,保證,使安全,確保;}
    The difference in handwriting is noticeable when one collocates the two signatures. {handwriting:n:筆跡,書法;noticeable:[音:‘no?t?s?bl];adj:顯而易見的,顯著的,值得注意點;}
    The boxer decided to quit the fight because of a dislocated shoulder.
    After the devastating earthquake, all the surviving inhabitants of Tungluo Village were relocated to a safer spot. {devastating:[音:‘dev?ste?t??];adj:毀滅性的的,破壞性的,驚人的,壓倒性的,有魅力的;inhabitant:[音:?n‘hæb?t?nt];n:居民;}
    
    When the typical median-income household cannot afford to buy a house on mortgage, the economy is obviously in serious trouble. {household:n:家庭,戶;adj:家庭的,家喻戶曉的;mortgage:[音:‘m??rɡ?d?];n:按揭,抵押,抵押貸款;vt:抵押;}
    The settlement in Bosnia was a result of U.N. mediation. {settlement:n:解決,結算,協議,安置,殖民,定居;Bosina:n:波斯尼亞;}
    Dante‘s Divine Comedy and Chaucer‘s Canterbury Tales are generally regarded as the highest achievements of medieval literature. {Dante:[音:dænti];n:但丁(意大利詩人);Chaucer:n:喬叟(英國詩人);Divine Comedy:n:《神曲》;divine:[音:d?‘va?n];n:神圣的,神的;vt:推斷;vi:預言,理解;n:牧師,神學家;comedy:n:喜劇,滑稽,幽默事件;Canterbury Tales:n:《坎特伯雷故事》;Canterbury:n:坎特伯雷(地名);tale:n:故事,敘述,傳說;v:談論,講述,搬弄是非;regard:v:尊敬,視為,注視,留意,和……有關;n:關心,尊敬,注意,致意,考慮;regard as:v:把……看作;}
    You needn‘t bother going to the concert; the pianist is merely mediocre. {bother:v:煩擾,使惱怒,使不按,費心;n:麻煩,煩擾,焦急;pianist:[音:‘p??n?st];n:鋼琴家;}
    The government minister suddenly resigned last week, amid rumors that he recently called a prostitute to his residence. {resign:v:辭職,放棄,順從,聽任;prostitute:n:娼妓,為賺錢而作壞事的人;adj:賣淫的,墮落的;vt:賣身,貶損(自己);residence:n:住宅,住處,居住;}
    
    Earth stays on the orbit around the sun because the centrifugal force is balanced by the gravitational force. {orbit:[音:‘??rb?t];n:勢力范圍,眼眶,軌跡,軌道;vt:繞軌道而行,進入軌道;vi:盤旋;gravitational:[音:?ɡræv?‘te???nl];adj:重力的,引力作用的;}
    The centripetal force and the centrifugal force are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. {magnitude:[音:‘mæɡn?tu?d];n:大小,重要,光度,(地震)級數,(星星)等級;}
    It takes a tremendous amount of concentration to play this video game. {tremendous:[音:tr?‘mend?s];adj:巨大的,驚人的;amount:n:數量,總額;vi:總計,等于;}
    Ptolemaic cosmology pictures the universe as a series of concentric circles, with Earth at the center. {ptolemaic:[音:?t?li?meiik];adj:天動說的;cosmology:[音:kɑ?z‘mɑ?l?d?i];n:宇宙學,宇宙天體學;circle:n:圓圈,圈子,包廂;v:劃圈,包圍,盤旋,環繞;}
    TIME Inc. recently decentralized operations by shifting authority to regional headquarters. {TIME Inc.:n:時代公司;shift:v:移動,改變,換擋,字型轉換;n:輪班,變化,移動,計謀,輪班職工;authority:n:權利,官方,當局,職權,權威;regional:adj:地區的,局部的,當地的,方言的;n:分部;headquarter:n:總部;vt:總部設于;vi:設立總部;}
    "Maverick" was the name of an eccentric rancher who refused to brand his cows. {maverick:[音:‘mæv?r?k];n:未打烙印的小牛,持不同意見者;adj:標新立異的;rancher:[音:‘rænt??r];n:大牧場主,大牧場工人;brand:n:烙印,商標,牌子,標記;vt:加污名于,銘記,打烙印;}
    Man by nature is egocentric, and thinks mostly of himself.
    The Ptolemaic universe is also called the geocentric universe.
    The Copernican universe is also known as the heliocentric universe. {Copernican:[音:ko?p?n?k?n];adj:哥白尼的,哥白尼學說的;}
    Dante‘s Divine Comedy depicts a theocentric world. {Dante:[音:dænti];n:但丁(意大利詩人);Divine Comedy:n:《神曲》;divine:[音:d?‘va?n];n:神圣的,神的;vt:推斷;vi:預言,理解;n:牧師,神學家;comedy:n:喜劇,滑稽,幽默事件;depict:vt:描述,描繪,畫;}
    
    Male infants are often circumcised soon after birth to spare them trouble later on. {infant:[音:‘?nf?nt];n:嬰兒,幼兒;adj:嬰兒的,初期的,幼稚的;spare:v:抽出,饒恕,赦免,節約;adj:備用的,多余的,閑置的;n:備用品,剩余;later on:后來,過些時候;}
    Using the slightly different angles of the sun from different places, ancient Egyptians accurately calculated the circumference of the globe. {slight:adj:輕微的,纖弱的,微笑的;n:輕蔑,怠慢;vt:輕視,忽略;Egyptian:[音:i‘d??p?n];adj:埃及的,埃及人的;n:埃及人;}
    The verbose style results from a heavy dose of circumlocution in the writing. {翻譯:這篇文章充斥著啰嗦的廢話,所以風格顯得累贅。verbose:[音:v??‘b??s];adj:啰嗦的,冗長的;style:n:文體,風格,樣式,時尚,類型;result from:v:起因于;dose:[音:do?s];n:劑量,一劑,一服;vt:給……服藥;a dose of:adj:一服(一次);writing:n:寫作,著述,筆記,作品;}
    Magellan led the first ship that circumnavigated the globe. {Megellan:n:麥哲倫(葡萄牙航海家),麥哲倫海域;led:v:引導,領先,帶領(lead的過去式和過去分詞);abbr:發光二極管(light emitting diode);emit:v:發出,發射,放射,吐露;emitting:adj:發出(光、熱、輻射)的;diode:[音:‘da?o?d];n:二極管;}
    Individual liberty is circumscribed in totalitarian countries. {individual:adj:單獨的,一個人的,獨有的;n:個人,個體;liberty:n:自由,自由權,冒失;totalitarian:[音:to??tæl?‘teri?n];adj:極權主義的,極權主義者;}
    Antelopes grazing on the plain exhibit circumspect behavior. {antelope:[音:‘ænt?lo?p];n:羚羊,羚羊皮革;graze:[音:ɡre?z];v:放牧,(牛、羊等)吃草,輕擦,擦傷;n:放牧,擦傷;plain:n:平原,廣闊的區域;adj:清楚的,簡單的,坦白的,平常的,樸素的,純的;adv:完全的,純粹的;exhibit:[音:?ɡ‘z?b?t];v:展覽,陳列,展示,表現;n:展品,展覽;}
    Under extreme circumstances, a dog can survive for over a week on nothing but water. {survive:vt:新免于難,存活,艱難度過,比……活得長;vi:活者,繼續存在;}
    Many Taiwanese businessmen circumvented government regulations and went ahead to invest in Mainland China when it was not yet legal to do so. {regulation:n:管理,規章,規則;adj:規定的;ahead:adj:領先,預先,在前,向前,提前;go ahead:v:開始,前進,領先,說吧;invest:v:投資,投入;}
    The electrician examined the circuit and found a bad connection. {electrician:[音:??lek‘tr??n];n:電工,電氣技師;bad connection:接觸不良;}
    He went home by a circuitous route so that he could stop by the supermarket. {route:[音:ru?t];n:路線,(固定)線路,途徑;vt:為……安排路線,(按路線)發送;}
    The heart is a circulatory organ.
    A wall used to encircle Taipei City. {used to:v:過去常常;}
    An insect passes through various forms in its life cycle. {insect:n:昆蟲,蟲子,卑微的人;pass through:v:穿過,透過,流過,經歷;fiom:n:形式,形狀,形態;}
    Experts are debating whether the current depression is cyclic or structural in nature. {翻譯:專家對當前的經濟蕭條是周期性的還是結構性的仍有爭論。debate:vt:爭論,思考;vi:辯論;n:辯論,討論;current:adj:現在的,流通的;n:趨勢,(水、氣、電)流;depression:n:沮喪,蕭條;structural:[音:‘str?kt??r?l];adj:結構的,構造的,建筑的,建筑用的;nature:n:性質,自然界,自然,自然狀態,本性,類型;}
    Typhoons and tornadoes are various forms of cyclones. {tornado:[音:t??r‘ne?do?];n:龍卷風,颶風,旋風;}
    Recycled paper, if not bleached, looks yellowish. {bleach:[音:bli?t?];n:漂白劑,漂白;v:變白,漂白;yellowish:adj:微黃色的;}
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    [2.3]表示【程度】的字根

         -magn-          =     great(大)
         -maj-             =     great(大)
         -maxi-            =     great(大)
     
         -mini-            =     tiny(小)
         -minu-           =     tiny(小)
    {
    magnify:magn - ify,[音:‘mæɡn?fa?],(great - make),v:夸張,放大;
    magnanimous:magn - anim - ous,[音:mæɡ‘næn?m?s],(great - spirit - adj.),adj:寬宏大量的,度量大的,寬大的,高尚的;
    magnificent:magn - (i)fic - ent,[音:mæɡ‘n?f?snt],(great - make - adj.),adj:宏偉的,壯觀的,極好的;
    majesty:maj - esty,[音:‘mæd??sti],(great - n.),n:(大寫)陛下,威儀,威嚴,莊嚴;
    maximum:maxi - (m)um,(great - adj.),adj:最大量的;
     
    miniskirt:mini - skirt,(tiny - skirt),n:迷你裙;
    miniature:mini - ature,[音:‘m?n??t??r],(tiny - n.),n:小模型,小畫像,按比例縮小之物,所圖;adj:小型的,小規模的;
    diminish:di(de) - mini - sh,[音:d?‘m?n??],(from - tiny - v.),v:減少,變小,逐漸變細;
    minuscule:minu - scule,[音:‘m?n?skju?l],(tiny - adj.),adj:微小的,小寫字的,很小的;n:小寫字;
    diminutive:di - minu - tive,[音:d?‘m?nj?t?v],(from - tiny - adj.),adj:袖珍的,小一號的,小的,小型的;n:小的人(物);
    }
     
    技術分享
    [2.3] 本小節示例及練習
    Chiang Kai-shek‘ s decision not to demand war reparations from the defeated Japan was a magnanimous gesture. {Chiang Kai-shek:n:蔣介石;reparation:[音:?rep?‘re??n];n:補償,賠償;defeat:n:挫敗,敗北;vt:戰勝,擊敗;gesture:n:手勢,姿勢;v:作手勢表達;}
    The Great Wall of China is a magnificent construction.
    The British sometimes refer to the Queen as H.M.Q - Her Majesty the Queen. {refer:vt:把……提交,把……歸因,歸類;vi:參考,談及,咨詢;refer to:vt:涉及,指的是,提及,參考,適用于;}
    The repeat felon was transferred to a maximum-security prison. {felon:[音:‘fel?n];n:重罪犯;repeat felon:重罪累犯;transfer:v:轉移,調任,轉乘;n:遷移,移動,換車,匯兌;prison:n:監獄,監禁;vt:囚禁,關入監獄;poison:n:毒藥,毒害,道德敗壞之事;vt:毒害,摧毀,中毒;adj:有毒的,危險的;}
    
    The theme park presents a collection of world-famous buildings in miniature. {present:v:提出,贈送,呈現;}
    Capital investment can only help a factory by so much; beyond a certain extent, the investor faces diminishing returns. {capital:n:資本,首都,大寫字母,[建筑]柱頂;adj:資本的,大寫的;extent:[音:?k‘stent];n:范圍,程度,廣度,寬度,長度,大小,[律]<英>扣押,<美>臨時所有權令;return:n:歸還,(收益)回報;}
    Before signing an insurance policy, be sure to read the "fine print" - the minuscule letters designed to discourage you from reading them. {insurance:n:保險,保險費,安全保障;policy:n:政策,方針,保險單;fine:adj:細微的;discourage:[音:d?s‘k??r?d?];vt:阻礙,使氣餒;discourage  from:v:勸阻;}
    Oriental women often appear diminutive in Scandinavia, amid the usually tall women there. {oriental:[音:???ri‘entl];adj:東方的,東方人的,(寶石)貴重的,優質的;n:東方人;occidental:[音:??ks?‘dentl];adj:西方的,西方人的;n:西方人;appear:vi:顯得,出現,出版,好像,登場;scandinavian:[音:?skænd?‘ne?vi?n];adj:斯砍的納維亞的;amid:[音:?‘m?d];prep:在其中,在其間;}
    View Code

     

    [2.4]表示【狀態】的字根

         -plen-          =     full,fill(滿,填滿)
         -plet-          =     full,fill(滿,填滿)
         -plete-         =     full,fill(滿,填滿)
     
         -sat-            =     full,fill(滿,填滿)
         -satis-          =     full,fill(滿,填滿)
         -satur-         =     full,fill(滿,填滿)
     
         -vac-            =     empty(空)
         -van-            =     empty(空)
     
         -nihil-           =     none(無)
         -nul-             =     none(無)
     
         -brev-           =     short(短)
         -bridg-          =     short(短)
         -brief-           =     short(短)
     
         -hum-           =     web,low,ground(潮濕,低,地)
     
         -temp-           =     heat,season,time(熱度,季節,時間)
     
         -ver-              =    true(真實)
         -veri-             =    true(真實)
     
         -rect-             =    right(正,直)
     
         -val-              =    strong,worth(強,價值)
         -valu-            =    strong,worth(強,價值)
         -value-          =    strong,worth(強,價值)
         -vail-             =    strong,worth(強,價值)
     
         -forc-             =    strong(強)
         -fort-             =    strong(強)
     
         -liber-            =    free,balance(自由,衡量)
         -liver-            =    free,balance(自由,衡量)
         -libr-             =    free,balance(自由,衡量)
     
         -arch-            =    first,chief,ancient(第一,最初,首要,古老)
         -arche-          =    first,chief,ancient(第一,最初,首要,古老)
         -archaeo-       =    first,chief,ancient(第一,最初,首要,古老)
         -archae-         =    first,chief,ancient(第一,最初,首要,古老)
     
         -pri-              =    first(第一,最初)
         -prim-            =    first(第一,最初)
         -prem-           =    first(第一,最初)
         -prin-            =    first(第一,最初)
     
         -optim-          =    best(最佳)
     
         -neo-              =    new(新式)
         -nov-              =    new(新式)
         -nova-            =    new(新式)
     
         -paleo-           =    old(古老)
    {
    plenty:plen - ty,(full - n.),n:多;
    deplete:de - plete,(not - fill),v:耗竭,耗盡,使空竭;
    replenish:re - plen - ish,[音:r?‘plen??],(again - fill - v.),v:補充,添加;
    replete:re - plete,(again - fill),adj:不缺的,充斥的,飽食的;
     
    satisfied:satis - fied,(full - adj.),adj:滿意的;
    sated:sat - ed,[音:se?t?d],(full - adj.),adj:厭膩的,夠了;
    saturation:satur - ation,[音:?sæt??‘re??n],(full - n.),n:飽和,飽和度,浸透;
    insatiable:in - sat - iable,[音:?n‘se???bl],(not - fill - able),adj:無法滿足的,貪得無厭的;
     
     
    vacation:vac - ation,(empty - n.[v.]),n:假期;v:度假;
    vacancy:vac - ancy,[音:‘ve?k?nsi],(empty - n.),n:空缺,空白,失神;
    evacuate:e - vac - uate,[音:?‘vækjue?t],(out - empty - v.),v:疏散,撤出,排泄;
    vanity:van - ity,[音:‘væn?ti],(empty - n.),n:虛榮,虛榮心,自負,浮華;
    evanescent:e - van - sec - ent,[音:?ev?‘nesnt],(out - empty - - adj.),adj:稍縱即逝的,短暫的;
     
    nihilism:nihil - ism,[音:‘na??l?z?m],(none - n.),n:虛無主義;
    nihilistic:nihil - istic,[音:?na??‘l?st?k],(none - adj.),adj:虛無主義的,無政府主義的;
    annihilate:an - nihil - ate,[音:?‘na??le?t],(to - none - v.),v:消滅,殲滅,徹底消除,消減殆盡,使無效,廢止;
    nullify:nul - lify,[音:‘n?l??fa?],(none - v.),v:使無效,廢除,取消;
     
    bridge:bridg - e,(short - n.[v.]),n:橋;v:溝通;
    brevity:brev - ity,[音:‘brev?ti],(short - n.),n:簡短,短暫,簡潔;
    abbreviation:ab - brev - iation,[音:??bri?vi‘e??n],(to - short - n.),n:縮寫;
    unabridged:un - a - bridg - ed,[音:??n?‘br?d?d],(not - to - short - adj.),adj:未刪節的,完整的;
    briefing:brief - ing,[音:‘bri?f??],(short - n.),n:簡要情況,簡報,簡介; {brief:adj:短暫的,短期的,簡短的,扼要的;n:摘要,案件陳述;vt:作……的概述,(向……)簡單介紹;}
     
    humble:hum - ble,[音:‘h?mbl],(low - adj.),adj:謙卑的,寒微的;
    humid:hum - id,[音:‘hju?m?d],(wet - adj.),adj:潮濕的,濕熱的;
    humidity:hum - id - ity,[音:hju?‘m?d?ti],(wet -  - n.),n:濕度;
    humiliate:hum - il - iate,(low -  - v.),v:羞辱;
    humility:hum - il - ity,[音:hju?‘m?l?ti],(low -  - n.),n:謙遜,謙虛,謙卑;
    humus:hum - us,[音:‘hju?m?s],(ground -  - n.),n:腐殖質,腐殖質土;
    exhume:ex - hume,[音:?ɡ‘zu?m],(out - ground),v:掘出(尸體以檢驗),發掘,挖掘出土;
    inhume:in - hume,[音:?n‘hju?m],(in - ground),v:入土,埋葬;
    posthumously:post - hum - ous - ly,[音:‘p?stj?m?sli],(after - ground -  - adv.),adv:在死后;
     
    temperature:temp - er - at -ure,(heat - - - n.),n:溫度;
    temper:temp -er,(heat - n.),n:脾氣;
    temperament:temp - er - ament,[音:‘tempr?m?nt],(heat -  - n.),n:氣質,性情;
    temperamental:temp - era - men - al,[音:?tempr?‘mentl],(heat -  -  - n.),n:情緒化的,神經質的,氣質的、易怒的;
    temperance:temp - er - ance,[音:‘temp?r?ns],(heat -  - n.),n:禁酒,節欲,節制;
    temperate:temp - er - ate,[音:[‘temp?r?t],(heat -  - adj.),adj:溫帶的,溫和的,有節制的;
    tempest:temp - est,[音:‘temp?st],(season - n.),n:風暴雨,騷動;
    tempestuous:temp - est - uous,[音:tem‘pest?u?s],(season -  - adj.),adj:狂暴的;
    tempo:temp - o,[音:‘tempo?],(time - n.),n:拍子,節奏,速率;
    temporary:temp - or - ary,(time -  - adj.),adj:暫時的;
    contemporaneous:con - temp - or - an - eous,[音:k?n?temp?‘re?n??s],(together - time -  -  - adj.),adj:同時代的,同期的;
    contemporary:con - temp - or - ary,(together - time -  - adj.[n.]),adj:同時代的,當代的;n:同時代的人,當代的人;
    extemporaneous:ex - temp - or - an - eous,[音:ek?stemp?‘re?n??s],(out - time -  -  - adj.),adj:即席的,未經準備的;
     
    very:ver - y,(true - adj.),adj:真正的;
    veracious:ver - ac - ious,[音:v?‘re???s],(true -  - adj.),adj:誠實的,真實可靠的;
    veracity:ver -ac - ity,[音:v?‘ræs?ti],(true -  - n.),n:真實性,誠實,正確度;
    verdict:ver - dict,[音:‘v??rd?kt],(true - speak),n:裁決,判決,定論;
    verification:veri - fic - at - ion,(true - make -  - n),n:驗證,確認,查證;
    verify:veri - fy,[音:‘ver?fa?],(true - make),v:驗證,證實,核實;
    verisimilitude:veri - sim - il - itude,[音:?ver?s?‘m?l?tu?d],(true - same -  - n),n:逼真,寫實,逼真的事物;
    veritable:veri - t(y) - able,[音:‘ver?t?bl],(true - n - able),adj:貨真價實的,真正的,真實的,確實的;
    verity:ve - ity,[音:‘ver?ti],(true - n),n:真理,真實,真實性;
    aver:a(d) - ver,[音:?‘v??r],(to - true),v:斷言,肯定,極力聲明;
     
    correct:cor - rect, (加強語氣 - right),adj:正確的;v:改正;
    rectangular:rect - angul - ar,[音:rek‘tæ?ɡj?l?(r)],(right - angle - adj.),adj:矩形的,長方形的,直角的;
    rectifiable:rect - ifi - able,[音:?rekt?‘fa??bl],(right - make - able),adj:可以改正的,可矯正的,可精餾的;
    rectify:rect - ify,[音:‘rekt?fa?],(right - make),v:改正,[化]精餾,[電]整流;
    rectitude:rect - itude,[音:‘rekt?tu?d],(right - n.),n:正直,誠實,操行端正;
    directory:di - rect - ory,(away - right - n.),n:目錄,索引,指南,工商名錄,指南;
    erect:e - rect,[音;?‘rekt],(out - right),adj:直立的,豎立的,筆直的;v:使豎立,建立,建造;
    insurrection:in - sur - rect - ion,[音:??ns?‘rek?n],(not - over - right - n.),n:起義,造反,叛亂,暴動;
     
    value:val - ue,(worth - n.[v.]),n:價值;v:重視;
    valiant:val - iant,[音:‘væli?nt],(strong - adj.),adj:勇敢的,英勇的;
    validate:val - id - ate,(strong -  - v.),v:證明成立,驗證,證實,確認;
    validity:val - id - ity,[音:v?‘l?d?ti],(strong -  - n.),n:正確性,有效性,合法性;
    valor:val - or,[音:‘væl?],(strong - n.),n:英勇,勇猛;
    valorous:val - or - ous,[音:‘væl?r?s],(strong -  - adj.),adj:英勇的;
    valueless:value - less,[音:‘vælju?l?s],(worth - without),adj:沒有價值的;
    ambivalent:ambi - val - ent,[音:æm‘b?v?l?nt],(both - strong - adj.),adj:感覺矛盾的,不知如何取舍的;
    convalescence:con - val - esc - ence,[音:?k?nv?‘les?ns],(加強語氣 - strong -  - n.),n:康復,恢復期;
    devalue:de - value,(down - worth),v:貶值,降低價值;
    evaluate:e(x) - valu - ate,(out - worth - v),v:評估;
    equivalent:equi - val - ent,(equal - worth - adj.[n.]),adj:相等的;n:相等的東西;
    invalid:in - val - id,(not - strong - adj.),adj:無效的,不成立的;
    invaluable:in - valu - able,(not - worth - adj.),adj:無價的,非常珍貴的;
    prevalent:pre - val - ent,[音:‘prev?l?nt],(before - strong - adj.),adj:流行的,盛行的,普遍的,占優勢的;
    avail:a(d) - vail,[音:?‘ve?l],(to - worth),n:用處,溢出;v:有利,有助于,對……有用;
    available:a(d) - vail - able,(to - worth - able),adj:可以使用的,可以取得的;
    prevail:pre - vail,[音:pr?‘ve?l],(before - worth),v:獲勝,勝過,盛行,克服,勸說,占上風;
     
    comfortable:com - fort - able, (加強語氣 - strong - adj.),adj:舒適的;
    forcibly:forc - ibl - y,[音:‘f??rs?bli],(strong - able - adv.),adv:強行地,用武力地,強迫地;
    enforce:en - force,(make - strong),v:強制執行;
    reinforcement:re - in - force - ment,(again - in - strong - n.),n:增強,支援,加固;
    unenforceable:un - en - force - able,[音:‘?n?n‘f??s?bl],(not - make - strong - able),adj:無法強制執行的;
    forte:forte,[音:f??rte?],(strong),n:特長,專長,優點;[音]強音記號;
    fortification:fort - ific - at - ion,[音:?f??rt?f?‘ke??n],(strong -  -  - n.),n:防御工事;
    fortify:fort - ify,[音:‘f??rt?fa?],(strong - v.),v:加強,增強,建筑防御工事于……上;
    fortitude:fort - itude,(strong - n.),n:毅力,剛毅,堅毅,不屈不饒;
    fortress:fort - ress,[音:‘f??rtr?s],(strong - n.),n:要塞,城堡;
    discomfort:dis - com - fort,(not - 加強語氣 - strong),n:不舒服,不適,不便之處;v:使不適;
    effortlessly:ef(ex) - fort - less - ly,[音:‘ef?tl?sli],(out - strong - without - adv.),adv:全不費力地,輕易地;
     
    liberty:liber - ty,[音:‘l?b?rti],(free - n.),n:自由;
    liberal:liber - al,(free - adj.),adj:開明的,大方的,慷慨的,自由主義的;n:自由主義者,開明的人;
    liberate:liber - ate,[音:‘l?b?re?t],(free - v.),v:解放,使獲得自由,釋出,放出;
    liberation:liber - at - ion,(free -  - n.),n:解放;
    libertarian:lber - tar - ian,[音:?l?b?r‘teri?n],(free -  - n.[adj.]),n:自由意志主義支持者,行動自由者;adj:自由意志主義支持者的,主張個人思想的;
    deliberate:de - liber - ate,[音:d?‘l?b?r?t],(加強語氣 - balance - v.[adj]),v:仔細考慮,研討;adj:故意的;
    deliberately:de - liber - ate - ly,[音:d?‘l?b?r?tli],(加強語氣 - balance -  - adv.),adv:故意地,不慌不忙地;
    deliver:de - liver,(away - free),v:拯救,釋放,遞送,發表(演講),交付,生(孩子),履行,投擲;
    libra:libr - a,[音:‘li?br?],(balance - n.),n:天秤座,磅;
    equilibrium:equi - libr - ium,[音:?i?kw?‘l?bri?m],(equal - balance - n.),n:均衡,平衡,平靜;
     
    architect:archi - tect,[音:‘ɑ?rk?tekt],(chief - skill),n:建筑師;
    archaeological:archaeo - log - ical,[音:?ɑ?ki?‘l?d??kl],(ancient - study - adj.),adj:考古學的;
    archaeopteryx:archae - opteryx,[音:?ɑ?rki‘ɑ?pter?ks],(first - wing),n:始祖鳥;
    archaic:arch - aic,[音:ɑ?r‘ke??k],(ancient - adj.),adj:老式的,古老的,古代的;
    archangel:arch - angel,[音:‘ɑ?rke?nd?l],(chief - angel),n:大天使;
    archbishop:arch - bishop,[音:?ɑ?rt?‘b???p],(chief - bishop),n:大主教,總教主; {bishop:[音:‘b???p];n:主教,(國際象棋中的)象;}
    archenemy:arch - enemy,[音:‘ɑ?t?‘en?m?],(chief - enemy),n:頭號敵人,魔鬼,撒旦;
    archetype:arche - type,[音:‘ɑ?kita?p],(first - type),n:原型;
    archrival:arch - rival,[音:‘ɑ?rt?rɑ?v?l],(chief - rival),n:主要對手; {rival:[音:‘ra?vl];n:競爭者,對手,同伴;adj:競爭的;v:競爭,與……相匹配;}
    anarchy:an - arch - y,[音:‘æn?rki],(without - chief - n.),n:無政府狀態,混亂;
    matriarchal:matri - arch - al,[音:?me?tri‘ɑ?rkl],(mother - chief - adj),adj:母系的,女性族長的;
    monarchy:mon(o) - arch - y,[音:‘mɑ?n?rki],(one -chief - n),n:君主政體,君主國,君主政治;
    oligarchy:olig - arch - y,[音:‘ɑ?l?ɡɑ?rki],(few - chief - y),n:寡頭政治,寡頭集團,寡頭統治的;
    patriarch:partri - arch,[音:‘pe?triɑ?rk],(father - chief),n:男性族長,大家長,創辦人,元老,主教;
     
    prince:prin - ce,(first - n.),n:王子,親王;
    priority:pri - or - ity,(first -  - n.),n:優先,優先權,優先順序;
    primary:prim - ary,(first -  - n.[adj]),n:初選,原色,要素;adj:主要的,首要的,初級的;
    primate:prim - ate,[音:‘pra?me?t],(first -  - n.),n:靈長類;
    prime:prime,(first),n:最佳狀態,壯年,青春,[數]質數;adj:最佳的;
    primeval:prim - ev - al,[音:pra?‘mi?vl],(first - age - adj.),adj:原始的,古老的,早期的;
    primitive:prim - it - ive,[音:‘pr?m?t?v],(first -  - adj.),adj:原始的,簡陋的;n:文藝復興前的藝術家,原始人;
    primordial:prim - ord - ial,[音:pra?‘m??rdi?l],(first - order - adj.),adj:原始的,自原始時代的,最初的;
    premier:prem - ier,[音:pr?‘m?r],(first - n.),n:總理,首相;adj:首位的,第一的,最初的;
    premiere:prem - iere,[音:pr?‘m?r],(first -  n.[v.]),n:首演,初次公演;v:首演,初次演出;
    premium:prem - ium,[音:‘pri?mi?m],(first -  n.[adj.]),n:特別重視,額外費用,獎金,保險費,[商]溢價;adj:最佳的,高價的,優質的;
    principal:prin - cip - al,[音:‘pr?ns?pl],(first - take - n.[adj.]),n:本金,資本,校長,委托人,主犯;adj:主要的,最重要的,首要的,第一的;
    principel:prin - cip - le,[音:‘pr?ns?pl],(first - take - n.]),n:原則,原理;
     
    optimism:optim - ism,(best - n.),n:樂觀主義;
    optimal:optim - al,(best - adj.),adj:最佳的;
    optimist:optim - ist,(best - one who),n:樂觀主義者;
    optimistic:optim - ist - ic,(best -  - adj.),adj:樂觀的;
    optimize:optim - ize,(best - v.),v:使最佳;
    optimum:optim - um,(best - adj.[n.]),adj:最佳的;n:最佳狀態;
     
    novel:nov - el,(new - n.[adj.]),n:小說;adj:新奇的;
    neoclassical:neo - class - ic - al,[音:?ni?o?‘klæs?kl],(new - class -  - adj.),adj:新古典的;
    neocolonialism:neo - colonial - ism,[音:?ni?o?k?‘lo?ni?l?z?m],(new - colonial - n.),n:新殖民主義;{colonial:[音:k?‘lo?ni?l];adj:殖民地的;n:殖民地居民;}
    neolithic:neo - lith - ic,[音:?ni??‘l?θ?k],(new - stone - adj.),adj:新石器時代的;
    neologism:neo - log - ism,[音:ni‘ɑ?l?d??z?m],(new - word - n.),n:新詞,新語,好用新語;
    neonatal:neo - nat - al,[音:?ni?o?‘ne?tl],(new - birth - adj.),adj:新生兒的;
    neophyte:neo - phyte,[音:‘ni??fa?t],(new - plant),n:新手,新信徒;
    novice:nov - ice,[音:‘nɑ?v?s],(new - n),n:新手,新信徒;
    innovation:in - nov - at - ion,[音:??n?‘ve??n],(in - new -  - n.),n:創新,革新;
    renovate:re - nov - ate,[音:‘ren?ve?t],(again - new - v.),v:翻新,改建,修理,刷新,革新;
    supernova:super - nova,[音:?su?p?r‘no?v?],(over - new),n:超級新星現象,[天]超新星;
     
    paleolithic:paleo - lith - ic,[音:?pe?l??‘l?θ?k],(old - stone - adj.),adj:舊石器時代的;
    paleoanthropologist:paleo - anthropo - log - ist,[音:pæli????nθr?‘p?l?d??st],(old - man - study of - one who),n:古人類學家;
    paleobiology:paleo - bio - logy,[音:?pe?li?o?ba?‘?l?d?i?],(old - life - study of),n:古生物學;
    paleobotany:paleo - botan - y,[音:?pe?l??‘b?t?n?],(old - plant - n.),n:古植物學;
    paleontologist:paleo - onto - log - ist,[音:pæl??n‘t?l?d??st],(old - being - study of - one who),n:古生物學家;
    paleozoologist:paleo - zoo - log - ist,[音:?pe?l?o?zo?‘?l?d??],(old - animal - study of - n.),n:古動物物學;
    }
     
    技術分享
    [2.4] 本小節示例及練習
    Energy conservationists worry that the earth‘s reserve of fossil fuels is being depleted too rapidly. {conservationist:[音:?kɑ?ns?r‘ve???n?st];n:自然資源保護論者;reserve:n:候補,預備品,貯存,含蓄,克制;vt:保留,預定,延期;fossil:[音:‘fɑ?sl];n:化石,食古不化的人,守舊的事物;}
    This is the last stop where we can replenish fuel and water before heading into the desert. {head:v:前進,為首,朝向;}
    Kenting National Park has its own Hawaiian beaches, replete with coconut trees and scantily-dressed women. {Kenting:n:(人名)墾丁;scantily:adv:不夠地,缺乏地,貧乏地;scantily-dressed:adj:衣著暴露的;}
    
    Judging that the average movie-goer is sated with sci-fi and violence, the producer is planning an old-fashioned romance for the summer market. {judging:[音:d??d???];n:判決;average:平均的,一般的,通常的;n:平均水平,平均數;movie-goer:n:電影觀眾;sci-fi:[音:‘sa?fa?];abbr:科幻小數(science fiction);fiction:n:小說,虛構,杜撰;producer:n:制片人;fashioned:adj:……式的;old-fashioned:adj:老式的;romance:n:文藝片,浪漫史,愛情故事,傳奇文學;}
    When humidity in the atmosphere reaches saturation, it starts to rain. {humidity:n:溫度,濕度;atmosphere:n:大氣,空氣,氣氛,氣壓;}
    There‘s an insatiable demand  among teenagers for new video games. {teenager:n:青少年;}
    
    The sign "No Vacancies" means all the rooms or seats already occupied. {occupy:vt:占用,占領,從事,使忙碌,專心;occupied:adj:已被占的,使用中的,忙的,從事的;}
    With the typhoon coming soon, inhabitants along the waterfront are being evacuated to higher grounds. {inhabitant:n:居民;waterfront:n:水邊地,濱水區;}
    The pursuits of fame and wealth often reflects merely a sense of vanity. {翻譯:追逐名利,常常反映的只不過是虛榮心。pursuit:[音:p?r‘su?t];n:追求,追趕,工作;fame:n:名聲,名望;reflect:v:反映,反射,反省,歸咎,顯示;}
    I enjoy watching the evanescent rays of the setting sun. {ray:n:光線,射線,輻射;setting:n:(日月的)沉落;}
    
    This abstract painting demonstrates nihilistic tendencies by challenging all forms of civilization. {翻譯:這幅畫以向所有形式的文化宣戰的方式來展現其虛無主義的傾向。tendency:n:趨勢,傾向,秉性;form:n:形式;civilization:n:文明,開化,教養;}
    The sneak attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese failed to annihilate the naval force of the U.S. {sneak:[音:sni?k];vt:偷偷摸摸做;vi:偷偷地走,偷偷地做;n:鬼鬼祟祟的人,潛行,溜;adj:出其不意的,暗中進行的;naval:[音:‘ne?vl];adj:海軍的,軍艦的;}
    The visiting basketball team‘s advantage in height is nullified by its slow speed. {advantage:n:優勢,有利條件;vt:有利于;}
    
    Brevity is the soul of speech. {翻譯:簡短是演說的靈魂。}
    Ca. is the abbreviation for California.
    The unabridged Webster‘s New World Dictionary cannot easily be carried around for use. {carry around:v:隨身帶來帶去;}
    The V.I.P visitors were brought to the briefing room for a survey of the company. {survey:n:縱覽,視察,問卷,測量,調查;v:調查,審視,研究,測量,勘定,環視;}
    
    Taiwan, a subtropical island, has humid summers and warm, snow-free winters. {subtropical:[音:?s?b‘trɑ?p?kl];adj:亞熱帶的;free:adj:沒有……的,未使用的;snow-free:adj:少雪的;}
    An air conditioner can control temperature and humidity.
    He was humiliated when his wife flirted openly with another man at the party. {flirt:[音:fl??rt];vi:調情,玩弄,掠過,輕率對待;vt:忽然彈出,搖動;n:調情的人,賣弄風騷的人;openly:adv:公開地,公然地,直率地;}
    Christianity preaches love and humility. {Christianity:[音:kr?st?i‘æn?ti];n:基督教,基督教精神;preach:[音:pri?t?];vt:講到,說教;vi:傳道,訓誡;}
    The rich humus on the forest ground providers an ideal environment for this fern. {ideal:[音:a?‘di??l];adj:理想的,空想的,觀念的,完美的;n:理想,典范,目標;fern:[音:f??rn];n:羊齒植物,蕨;}
    Some remains of prehistoric people were exhumed at this archaeological site. {remains:n:遺跡,剩余物,遺體;prehistoric:[音:?pri?h?‘st??r?k];adj:史前的,陳腐的;archeaological:[音:?ɑ?ki?‘l?d??kl];adj:考古學的,考古學上的;site:n:地點,位置,現場;vt:使……位于;}
    The coffin was inhumed after the minister gave his blessings. {minister:n:牧師,部長,大臣,外交使節;blessing:n:祝福,禱告,幸事;}
    Most of Emily Dickinson‘ s poetry was published posthumously.
    
    The boss lost his temper today.
    The new secretary is a girl with an artistic temperament. {secretary:[音:‘sekr?teri];n:部長,秘書,書記,大臣,寫字臺;artistic:[音:ɑ?r‘t?st?k];adj:藝術的;}
    Michael Chang always remains calm throughout the game, unlike some of the more temperamental tennis players. {Michael Chang:n:張德培;remain:v:保持,剩余,逗留,留下,依然;n:剩余物,遺跡,殘害;calm:[音:kɑ?m];adj:平靜的,冷靜的;v:(使)平靜,(使)鎮靜;n:鎮定,平靜,平穩;clam:[音:klæm];n:蛤,沉默寡言的人;vi:保持沉默,挖蚌;throughout:prep:遍及,貫穿;adv:自始至終,到處;}
    His wife is president of the temperance society. {society:n:社會,團體,協會,社交圈;temperance society:n:禁酒協會;}
    Much of China lies in the temperate zone. {翻譯:中國有很大一部分位于溫帶地區。}
    The Tempest is one of Shakespeare‘ s finest romances. {The Tempest:n:《暴風雨》;finest:adj:好的,出色的;romance:n:浪漫作品,浪漫史,愛情故事,冒險故事,傳奇文學;}
    The ship is struggling in tempestuous seas. {struggle:vi:努力,奮斗,斗爭,掙扎;n:斗爭,競爭,奮斗;}
    The fast tempo of the music makes its ideal for dancing. {ideal:n:典范,理想,目標;adj:理想的,完美的,空想的,觀念的;}
    Pouring cold water on skin burns can provide temporary relief. {pour:[音:p??r];v:不斷流動,倒,傾瀉,蜂擁而來;n:傾瀉;burn:n:燒傷,燃燒;relief:[音:r?‘li?f];n:減輕,解除,輕松,浮雕,救濟(品),安慰,替代;adj:提供救濟的,文本的;}
    Li Po was contemporaneous with Tu Fu. {翻譯:李白和杜甫同時代。Li Po:n:李白;Tu Fu:n:杜甫;}
    Li Po was a contemporary of Tu Fu. {翻譯:李白和杜甫是同時代的人。}
    All contestants must draw a topic and make an extemporaneous speech on it. {contestant:n:競爭者,參賽者;draw:v:抽取,提取,畫,拖,拉,繪制;n:平局,抽簽,拉,拽,吸引人的事物;topic:n:題目,話題,標題;tropic:n:回歸線,熱帶;adj:熱帶的;}
    
    I‘ m going to vote for the Democratic candidate because he is a veracious man. {democratic:adj:民主的,民主黨的,大眾的;republican:adj:共和黨的;n:共和黨人;}
    We can‘t publish the story unless you can prove its veracity.
    "Not guilty" is the unanimous verdict of the jury. {unanimous:[音:ju‘næn?m?s];n:全體一致的,一致同意的;jury:n:陪審團,評委會;adj:臨時用的;vt:挑選;}
    Verification is the most tricky issue in START - the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks. {tricky:adj:棘手的,狡猾的,巧妙的;START:abbr:消減戰略武器會談(the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks);strategic:[音:str?‘ti?d??k];adj:戰略的,重要的,基本的;arm:n:武器,軍種,臂,扶手,袖子;vt:武裝,裝備;arms:n:軍事行動,紋章,兵役;}
    Americans like to say: trust, but veify. {翻譯:美國人喜歡說:信任,但是要驗證。}
    Verisimilitude is one of the goals of artistic realism. {goal:n:球門,目標,得分;artistic:[音:ɑ?r‘t?st?k];adj:藝術的;realism:n:現實態度,寫實主義,唯實論;}
    The new product is a veritable triumph. {triumph:[音:‘tra??mf];n:勝利,凱旋,成就,歡欣;vi:戰勝,慶祝勝利;}
    Starting with Socrates, philosophers have been searching for the eternal verities. {Socrates:[音:?sɑ?kr??tiz];n:蘇格拉里(古希臘哲學家);philosopher:[音:f?‘lɑ?s?f?r];n:哲學家,思想家,達觀者;eternal:adj:永久的,永恒的;n:永恒的事;}
    I can aver that he is telling the truth.
    
    His house  is situated on a rectangular piece of land. {situate:[音:‘s?t?ue?t];vt:位于,坐落在;adj:位于……的,坐落在……的;}
    Don‘ t worry; the mistake is rectifiable.
    It‘ s not too late to rectify that mistake.
    Our minister is known for his moral rectitude. {minister:n:牧師;moral:[音:‘m??r?l];adj:道德的,精神上的;n:寓意,道德,品行,倫理;}
    I found your number in the telephone directory.
    Homo erectus is so named because the stood erect. {homo:人,同性戀者;pref:表示"相同"、"相等"、"類似";erectus:[音:?‘rekt?s];adj:[拉丁]直立的;}
    The leader of the insurrection, if successful, may become the next president.
    
    Many Americans remember Eisenhower as a valiant soldier more than anything else.
    Two separate experiments validate the theory.
    In experimentalism, the validity of ideas is examined through experiments. {experimentalism:n:實驗主義,經驗主義;examine:vt:檢查,調查,考試,仔細查看;vi:檢查,調查;}
    The enemy is upon us; this is the hour that requires a show of valor. {be upon sb:攻過來了;}
    He won a medal for his valorous deeds in the war. {deed:n:行為,事跡,[法]契約;vt:立契轉讓}
    Iron sulfide looks just like gold, but is almost valueless. {sulfide:[音:‘s?lfa?d];n:硫化物;}
    Some welcome the WTO but others oppose it; as for me, I still feel ambivalent about it. {WTO:世界貿易組織(the World Trade Organization);oppose:v:反對,對抗,使對立;}
    He just got over a serious illness and is staying in the countryside for convalescence. {go over:v:挺過,檢查,重做,復習,越過,轉向,受歡迎;serious:adj:嚴肅的,嚴重的,認真的,莊重的;countryside:n:鄉下,農村;}
    Some economists worry that China may aggravate the Asian financial crisis by devaluing the renminbi. {aggravate:[音:‘æɡr?ve?t];vt:惡化,嚴重;crisis:[音:‘kra?s?s];n:危機,危急關頭;}
    Graduate institutes in the US rely on GRE and the GMAT to evaluate the aptitude of applying candidates. {graduate institute:(畢業生)研究所;rely:[音:r?‘la?];vi:依靠,信任;GRE:(美國)研究生入學考試(Graduate Record Examination);GMAT:研究生管理科學入學考試(Graduate Management Admission Test);admission:[音:?d‘m??n];n:承認,入會費,許可;aptitude:[音:‘æpt?tu?d];n:天資,資質,才能,傾向;}
    An isosceles triangle has two sides of equivalent length. {isosceles:[音:a?‘s?s?l?i?z];(三角形)二等邊的,等腰的;}
    The argument is invalid because it is based on faulty premises. {argument:n:辯論,論點,論據,爭論,理由;faulty:adj:有缺陷的,不合格的,有錯誤的,有缺點的;premise:[音:‘prem?s];n:前提;vt:預述,提論,假設;}
    Your help was invaluable; I couldn‘ t have succeeded without it.
    The use of marijuana is prevalent on American campuses. {marijuana:[音:?mær?‘wɑ?n?];n:大麻;}
    The accused pleaded long and hard with the judge, but to no avail. {accuse:[音:?‘kju?z];v:譴責,控告,指責;accused:n:被告;plead:v:懇求,辯護,提出借口,認罪;judge:n:法官,裁判;v:斷定,判斷,審判;}
    The student works part time at 7-ElEVEN and uses every available moment to study.
    The entrepreneur prevailed against great odds and made his company a success. {翻譯:這位企業家克服極大的差異(劣勢),把公司經營的十分成功。entrepreneur:[音:?ɑ?ntr?pr?‘nj?r];n:企業家,承承包商,主辦者;prevail against:vt:勝過(壓倒);odd:adj:奇數的,古怪的,零散的,剩余的;odds:差別(差異),可能性,機率,投注賠率,讓步,優勢;}
    
    Many aboriginal tribes were forcibly removed from their lands when settlers came to the island. {aboriginal:[音:?æb?‘r?d??nl];adj:原始的,土著的;n:土著居民,土生生物;tribe:[音:tra?b];n:部落,族,一伙人;settler:n:移居者,定居者,開拓者;}
    It is the job of the police to enforce the law.
    One policeman watched over the hoodlums while another called for reinforcement. {watch over:v:看守,監視,照管;hoodlum:[音:‘hu?dl?m];n:流氓,暴徒;}
    The new law is criticized as being well-intentioned but unenforceable. {criticize:v:評論,批評,挑剔,非難,吃毛求疵;well-intentioned:立意很好的,目的很好的;intention:n:目的,意圖,意向,打算;}
    Math is my forte, but English is my Achilles‘ heel. {achilles:n:阿基里斯(荷馬史詩);heel:n:腳后跟;v:傾側;achilles‘ heel:n:阿喀琉斯的腳踝,唯一致命的弱點;}
    The commander gave orders that stronger fortification be built around the bunker. {bunker:n:[軍]掩蔽壕,碉堡,煤倉,[高爾夫]沙坑;v:擊入沙坑,陷入窮境,將燃料裝入(燃料艙);}
    This baby formula contains milk fortified with vitamins and minerals. {formula:[音:‘f??rmj?l?];n:代乳品,配方,公式,規則;adj:方程式的,(賽車的)級的;mineral:n:礦物(石),礦物質;}
    The president is looked up to by his countrymen as a man of fortitude, discipline and integrity. {look up to:v:尊敬,敬仰;countrymen:n:國民;discipline:[音:d?s?pl?n];n:紀律,訓練,學科;vt:訓練,懲罰;integrity:n:正直,誠實,完整,完善;}
    Fort Lauderdale was once a military fortress, but has long since developed into a thriving city. {Fort Lauderdale:[音:?f??rt‘l??d?rde?l];n:勞德代爾堡(美國佛羅里達州東南沿海城市,邁阿密附近;);thriving:adj:繁榮的,旺盛的,興旺的;thrive:vi:興旺,繁榮,茁壯成長;}
    To see natural beauty with your own eyes, you may have to put up with some physical discomfort. {put up:vi:提供食宿,直接行動;vt:放,貯備,推薦,提供,提出,建造,舉起,提高,張貼,公布,配置,準備;physical:adj:身體上的,物質的,身體的,體力的,物理的,肉體上的;<美>體格檢查;}
    His wife did not have the strength to twist open the jar, but he did it effortlessly. {strength:n:力氣,強度,力量,長處;twist:v:纏繞,捻,搓,擰,扭曲;n:擰,捻,扭曲,盤旋,彎曲處;twist open:擰開;jar:[音:d?ɑ?r];n:廣口瓶,壇子,刺耳聲,震動;vi:發刺耳聲,不協調,震蕩,沖突;vt:擾亂,震動;}
    
    Democrats hold more liberal views than do Republicans. {democrat:[音:‘dem?kræt];n:民主主義者,<美>美國民主黨派的成員;view:n:觀念;republican:n:用戶共和政體的人,<美>共和黨人;adj:共和政體的;}
    It has been said that birth-control pills liberated married women from the dreary cycle of pregnancy and child birth. {birth-control pills:n:避孕藥;prophylactic:[音:?pro?f?‘lækt?k];n:預防藥,避孕用品;adj:預防疾病的;dreary:[音:[‘dr?ri];adj:沉悶的,令人沮喪的,情緒低落的;}
    Yasser Arafat is the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization. {Yasser Arafat:n:亞瑟爾·阿拉法特(巴勒斯坦領導人);Palestine:[音:?pæl?sta?n];n:巴勒斯坦;}
    Libertarians are hard-line conservatives who oppose government intervention in economic matters. {hard-line:adj:強硬派的,強硬路線的;conservative:[音:k?n‘s??rv?t?v];n:保守派(黨),保守的人;adj:保守的,守舊的;intervention:[音:??nt?‘ven?n];n:介入,干預,調停;matter:n:實物,事情,事態,關于……的事,重要性;}
    The jury deliberated severals days before reaching a "not guilty" verdict. {jury:n:陪審團,評委會;reach:v:達成,到達,伸出,取得聯系,延伸,(伸手)去夠;n:范圍,影響力,河段,等級;verdict:[音:‘v??rd?kt];n:裁決,定論;}
    It was no accident - he did it deliberately.
    Moses delivered his people from slavery in Egypt. {moses:[音:‘mo?z?z];n:摩西(姓氏,男子名);deliver from:v:從……解救出來,使擺脫;slavery:n:奴役,奴隸制,奴隸身份;}
    You are a Libra if you were born between Sept. 23 and Oct. 22.
    Populations growth has reached a state of equilibrium in many Scandinavian countries. {Scandinavian:[音:?skænd?‘ne?vi?n];adj:斯堪的納維亞的,北歐的;}
    
    Archaeological research has  been likened to a jigsaw puzzle with most of the pieces missing. {liken:[音:‘la?k?n];v:比作,比擬,使像;jigsaw:[音:‘d??ɡs??];n:拼圖游戲,縷花鋸,豎鋸;vt:用豎鋸鋸,使互相交錯搭接;puzzle:n:拼圖游戲,難題,謎;jigsaw puzzle:n:智力拼圖玩具,七巧板;}
    The archaeopteryx is aptly named because it was probably the first bird that took to the wing. {翻譯:始祖鳥的名字很貼切,因為他大概是最早學會飛翔的鳥。aptly:[音:‘æptli];adv:適當地,適宜地,巧妙地;took to:v:容易學會,開始,從事,喜歡,形成……的習慣;}
    The King James Bible, compiled in 1611, uses language that seems archaic today. {compile:[音:k?m‘pa?l];vt:編譯,編制,編纂;}
    Satan was once an archangel before his ambition drove him on a path of defiance. {defiance:[音:d?‘fa??ns];n:違抗,蔑視,挑釁;}
    Chaucer‘s Canterbury Tales tells of a pilgrimage to the shrine of the archbishop of Canterbury. {Canterbury Tales:n:《坎特伯雷故事集》;tale:n:故事,敘述,傳說;v:談論,講述,搬弄是非;tail:n:后部,尾巴;pilgrimage:[音:‘p?lɡr?m?d?];n:朝圣之旅,人生歷程;vi:朝圣;shrine:[音:?ra?n];n:圣殿,神龕,廟,圣地;v:將……置于神龕內,把……奉為神靈;}
    For the past half-century, Taiwan‘s archenemy has been Mainland China.
    Shakespeare‘s Hamlet is an original creation, but critics have found an archetype for it in the Greek trilogy Oresteia, in which a prince kills his mother to avenge his father. {creation:n:創造,創作;critic:n:評論家,批評家;Greek:n:希臘人,希臘語;Greece:n:希臘;trilogy:[音:‘tr?l?d?i];n:三部曲;Oresteia:n:《奧瑞斯提亞》;avenge:[音:?‘vend?];vt:報仇;為……報復;}
    Netscape Navigator is the archrival of Microsoft‘s Explorer. {navigator:[音:‘næv?ɡe?t?r];n:航海家,領航員,導航儀;}
    American Libertarians favor minimal government, but not complete anarchy. {libertarian:n:自由意志主義者,行動自由者;favor:vt:偏愛,給予,支持,關心,利于,長得像;n:偏愛,愛好,贊成;minimal:adj:最小的,最低限度的;}
    In a matriarchal society, it is the women who make all the important decisions.
    Great Britain‘s political system is one of constitutional monarchy. {constitutional:[音:?k?nst?‘tju???n?l];adj:憲法的,合乎憲法的,體質的,組成的;} 
    Aristotle said that oligarchy was merely a preliminary step to tyranny. {Aristotle:n:亞里士多德(古希臘哲學家);preliminary:adj:初步的,預備的,開始的;n:初步行動,準備,初步措施;tyranny:[音:‘t?r?ni];n:暴政,苛政,專制;}
    Peng Ming-Min is the patriarch of Taiwan‘s opposition movement. {opposition:n:反對,敵對,在野黨;movement:[音:‘mu?vm?nt];n:運動,活動,動作;[音]樂章;}
    
    Airport security takes priority over all others. {翻譯:機場安全優先于其他考量。}
    The three primary colors are red, yellow and blue.
    Humans, like monkeys, are members of the primate family.
    A pianist in his sixties is still in his prime, but a vocalist at such an age would be past his prime.
    The primeval forest is now endangered by slash-and -burn farming. {pianist:[音:p?‘en?st];n:鋼琴家;one‘s sixties:n:六十幾歲;vocalist:[音;‘vo?k?l?st]];n:聲樂家,歌手;}
    Some natives in Sumatra are still living a relatively primitive life. {Sumatra:[音:s??mɑtr?];n:蘇門答臘(硬度尼西亞西部的島嶼);}
    Some scientists believe that life in its primordial form still exists around hot spots on the ocean bottom.
    The premier of Taiwan is planning a visit abroad.
    The composer chose to present the world premiere of his new symphony at Carnegie Hall. {composer:n:創作者(尤指樂曲的);symphony:[音:‘s?mf?ni];n:交響樂;Carnegie:[音:?kɑrn?ɡi];n:卡內基;}
    This software company puts a premium on creativity. {creativity:n:創造力,創造;}
    Now that the company has gone bankrupt, the bank would be happy to get the principal back and forget about the interest. {interest:n:利息;}
    My objection to military service is a matter of principle. {翻譯:我反對兵役是出于原則問題。objection:n:反對,異議;}
    
    The solar eclipse can only be seen in Northern Taiwan under optimal conditions. {solar:adj:太陽的,太陽能的;eclipse:n:日或月食,喪失,沒落;vt:形成日或月食,使……黯然失色;lunar:adj:月亮的,陰歷的,銀的;condition:n:條件,情況;vt:訓練,決定,以……為條件,護理(頭發);}
    An optimist is one who looks at a half-full glass of water and notices the half that is full. {翻譯:樂觀主義者就是那些看到半杯水就會注意到有水的那一半的人。}
    Though by no means certain of eventual success, I remain cautiously optimistic. {though:conj:雖然,盡管,然而,而是;adv:不過(若用在句末則表示其補充說明語氣減弱);eventual:[音:?‘vent?u?l];adj:最終的,可能的;cautiously:[音:‘k????sli];adv:慎重的,謹慎的;by no means certain:v:不能肯定,沒有把握;}
    The new graphics accelerator interface can optimize multimedia effects on your computer.
    The chief merit of the capitalist system is that it keeps resource allocation at an optimum level. {merit:n:優點,功績,價值;v:值得,應得;capitalist system:n:資本主義制度;allocation:n:分配,配置,安置;}
    
    The Disney headquarters in Burbank, California, is located in a neoclassical building. {headquarter:vt:總部設于;vi:設立總部;headquarters:n:總部,司令部,指揮部;Burbank:n:伯班客(加州城市);}
    Economic exploitation of Third-World countries is a form of neocolonialism. {exploitation:[音:?ekspl??‘te??n];n:剝削,開發,開采,利用;}
    Neolithic man already used fire to cook food.
    "Herstory" is a neologism coined by feminists to imply history seen from women‘s point of view. {翻譯:Herstory是女權運動者創造的新詞,用來表示婦女觀點的歷史。coin:v:創造(新詞),鑄造(錢幣);n:硬幣,金錢;adj:硬幣的,投幣的;feminist:[音:fem?n?st];n:女權主義者;adj:主張男女平等的,女權主義的;imply:vt:暗示,意指,含有……的意義;}
    Neonatal care for underweight infants can be very expensive. {underweight:adj:重量不足的,n:重量不足;infant:[音:‘?nf?nt];n:嬰兒,幼兒;adj:嬰兒的,初期的,幼稚的;}
    As a stock-market neophyte, I buy conservatively. {conservatively:[音:k?n‘s??v?t?vli];adv:保守地,謹慎地;}
    Although the secretary is a complete novice, she handles the job well.
    For much of its history, China was a stagnant society with no room for innovation. {翻譯:中國歷史中,有很長時間是個停滯的社會,沒有創新的空間。stagnant:[音:‘stæɡn?nt];adj:不滾動的,停滯的,不景氣的;}
    The freshly renovated theater looks brand-new. {freshly:adv:新近,剛才;theater:n:劇場,電影院,戲院;adj:戰區的;brand-new:adj:嶄新的;}
    The supernova is the birth of an unusually bright star, but at the same time it marks the death of an old star. {翻譯:超新星是指一顆異常明亮的新星的誕生,但同時也表示一顆舊星的死亡。}
    
    The Neanderthal man and the Cro-Magnon man are subjects of study for a paleoanthropologist. {neanderthal:[音:ni‘ænd?rθɑ?l];n:尼安德塔人;adj:穴居人的;cro-magnon:[音:‘kro?‘mæɡn??];n:克魯馬努(舊石器時代晚期在歐洲的高加索人種)人;adj:克魯馬努人的;subject:n:對象;}
    Paleobiology deals with plants and animals in primordial times. {primordial:adj:原始的,自原始時代的,最初的;}
    Paleobiology can be subdivided into paleobotany and paleozoology. {subdivide:v:細分,再劃分,分小類;subdivide into:v:細分為;}
    A paleontologist studies fossiles to learn about ancient life forms, such as dinosaurs. {fossile:n:化石,食古不化的人,守舊的事物;}
    A paleozoologist is like a paleobotanist, except that he does not deal with plants.
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    [2.5]表示【現象】的字根

         -cad-          =     fall,befall(落下,發生,降臨) {befall:v:發生,降臨;}
         -cas-          =     fall,befall(落下,發生,降臨)
         -cid-          =     fall,befall(落下,發生,降臨)
         -cay-          =     fall,befall(落下,發生,降臨)
     
         -fin-           =     end,limit(結束,界限)
     
         -term-        =     end,limit(結束,界限)
     
         -dur-          =     last,hard(持續,強硬)
     
         -flu-            =     flow(流動)
         -fluct-          =     flow(流動)
         -flo-            =     flow(流動)
         -flot-           =     flow(流動)
     
         -und-          =     flow,overflow(流動,泛濫)
     
         -mob-         =    move(移動)
         -mot-          =    move(移動)
         -mo-           =    move(移動)
     
         -vers-         =    turn,change(轉變)
         -verse-        =    turn,change(轉變)
         -vert-          =    turn,change(轉變)
         -verte-        =    turn,change(轉變)
     
         -vari-         =    change(變化)
     
         -flect-        =    bend(彎曲) {bend:v:彎曲,使彎曲,屈服,屈從,集中于;n:彎曲,彎道;}
         -flex-         =    bend(彎曲)
     
         -tort-         =    twist(扭曲)
         -tors-         =    twist(扭曲)
     
         -ple-          =    fold(折疊,重疊)
         -plex-        =    fold(折疊,重疊)
         -pli-          =    fold(折疊,重疊)
         -plic-          =    fold(折疊,重疊)
         -ply-          =    fold(折疊,重疊)
     
         -clin-         =    lean,slope(傾斜)
         -cline-       =    lean,slope(傾斜)
         -cliv-         =    lean,slope(傾斜)
     
         -erg-         =    work(作用)
         -ergo-       =    work(作用)
         -org-         =    work(作用)
         -urg-         =    work(作用)
    {
    accident:ac - cid - ent,(to - befall - n.),n:意外;
    cadaver:cad - aver,[音:k?‘dæv?r],(fall - n.),n:尸體;
    cadence:cad - ence,[音:ke?dns],(fall - n.),n:韻律,節奏,抑揚頓挫,降調句;
    decadence:de - cad - ence,[音:‘dek?d?ns],(down - fall - n.),n:頹廢,衰落;
    cascade:cas - cade,[音:kæ‘ske?d],(fall - n.),n:瀑布,[電]串聯;v:瀑布似的落下,(將……)連接,串聯,級聯;
    casual:cas - ual,[音:‘kæ?u?l],(fall - adj.),adj:(服裝)隨便的,非正式的,漫不經心的,偶然的,臨時的,休閑的;n:便裝,臨時工;
    casualty:cas - ual - ty,[音:‘kæ?u?lti],(fall -  - n.),n:傷亡,傷亡人數,傷亡者,事故,[英]急診室;
    occasion:oc - cas - ion,[音:?u‘ke??n],(to - befall - n.),n:場合,時機,理由,機會,盛大場面;vt:引起,致使;
    coincidence:co - in - cid - ence,(together - in - befall - n.),n:巧合,一致,同時發生;
    deciduous:de - cid uous,[音:d?‘s?d?u?s],(down - fall - adj.),adj:每年落葉的,非永久性的,(牙齒或角等)定期脫落;
    incidentally:in - cid - ent - al - ly,[音:??ns?‘dentli],(in - befall -  -  - adv.),adv:附帶一提,偶然地,順便地;
    occident:oc - cid - ent,[音:‘ɑ?ks?d?nt],(toward - fall - n.),n:西方,歐美國家;
    decay:de - cay,[音:d?‘ke?],(down - fall),n:腐爛,腐敗,衰退;v:(使)衰退,(使)腐敗,(使)腐爛;
     
    finish:fin - ish,(end - n.[v.]),n:完成;v:完成;
    finale:fin - ale,[音:f?‘næli],(end - n.),n:結局,尾聲,終曲;
    finalize:fin - al - ize,(end -  - v.),v:完成,最終確定,結束;
    finesse:fin - esse,[音:f?‘nes],(end - n.[v.]),n:手腕,技巧,策略,偷牌;v:用計謀處理,偷牌;
    finicky:fin - ic - ky,[音:‘f?n?ki],(end -  - adj.),adj:挑剔的,過分挑剔的,苛求的,過分講究的;
    finite:fin - ite,[音:‘fa?na?t],(limit - adj.),adj:有限的;
    confine:con - fine,[音:k?n‘fa?n],(together - limit),v:限制,禁閉;n:范圍,界限,約束,限制;
    definition:de - fin - it - ion,[音:def?‘n??n],(down - limit -  - n.),n:定義,闡述,清晰度;
    definitive:de - fin - it - ive,[音:d?‘f?n?t?v],(down - limit -  - adj.),adj:權威性的,明確的,確定的,決定性的;n:限定詞;
    infinite:in - fin - ite,[音:‘?nf?n?t],(not - limit - adj.),adj:無限的,無窮的;n:無限;
    refined:re - fin - ed,[音:r?‘fa?nd],(again - end - adj.),adj:精煉的,優雅的,精細的; {refine:v:精煉,改進,使更文雅;}
     
    determine:de - term - ine,(down - end - v.),v:決定;
    term:term,(limit),n:任期,詞語,條件;
    terminal:term - in - al,(end -  - adj.[n.]),adj:期末的,末端的,終點的,晚期的;n:終站,末端,終端機,航站樓;
    terminate:term - in - ate,(end -  - v.),v:終止;
    terminology:term - ino - logy,[音:?t??rm?‘nɑ?l?d?i],(limit -  - n.),n:術語,術語學;
    terminus:term - in - us,[音:‘t??rm?n?s],(end -  - n.),n:終點,終點站,界限,界標;
    conterminous:con - term - in - ous,[音:k?n‘t??m?n?s],(together - limit -  - adj.),adj:接壤的,交界的,相接的,連接的,有同一延伸的;
    exterminate:ex - term - in - ate,[音:?k‘st??rm?ne?t],(out - end -  - v.),v:消滅,消減,撲滅,根絕;
    indeterminate:in - de - term - in - ate,[音:??nd?‘t??rm?n?t],( not - down - end -  - adj.),adj:不一定的,不確定的,含混的; {determinate:adj:確定的,決定的,限定的;}
    predeterminate:pre - de - term - in - ate,( before - down - limit -  - adj.),adj:事先決定的,預先決定的,先決定的; 
     
    during:dur - ing,(last - Ving),prep:在……期間;
    durable:dur - able,(last - able),adj:耐用持久的;
    duration:dur - at - ion,(last -  - n.),n:時期,持續時間;
    duress:dur - ess,[音:du‘res],(hard - n.),n:(法律)強迫,脅迫;
    endure:en - dure,[音:?n‘d?r],(v. - last),vt:容忍,忍受;vi:忍耐,持久,持續;
    enduring:en - dur - ing,(v. - last - Ving),adj:持久的,持久不衰的;
    obdurate:ob - dur - ate,[音:‘ɑ?bdjur?t],(against - hard - adj.),adj:固執的,頑固的,冷酷的;
     
    flood:flood,(flow),n:洪水;v:淹沒;
    fluctuation:fluct - uat - ion,[音:?fl?kt?u‘e??n],(flow -  - n.),n:波動,起伏;
    fluent:flu - ent,(flow - adj.),adj:流利的,流暢的;
    fluid:flu - id,[音:‘flu??d],(flow - n.[adj.]),n:流體,液體;adj:流動的,流暢的,不定的;
    flush:flu - sh,(flow - v.),v:沖水;
    flux:flu - x,(flow - n.),n:動蕩,變遷,流量,助溶劑;vt:使熔化,使瀉,漲;vi:熔化;
    affluent:af(ad) - flu - ent,[音:‘æflu?nt],(to - flow - adj.),adj:富裕的;n:支流;
    confluence:con - flu - ence,[音:‘k?nfl??ns],(together - flow - n.),n:匯流,合流,匯合;
    effluent:ef(ex) - flu - ent,[音:‘eflu?nt],(out - flow - n.),n:廢水,排放物,污物,污水;adj:流出的;
    influential:in - flu - ent - ial,[音:??nflu‘en?l],(in - flow -  - adj.),adj:有權勢的,有影響力的;n:有影響力的人物;
    influx:in - flu - x,[音:‘?nfl?ks],(in - flow - n.),n:流入,涌入,河口,匯集;
    superfluous:super - flu - ous,[音:su?‘p??rflu?s],(over - flow - adj.),adj:多余的,過剩的,不必要的;
    floe:floe,[音:flo?],(flow),n:海面上的浮冰;
    flotilla:flot - illa,[音:flo?‘t?l?],(flow - n.),n:船隊,小型艦隊;
    flotsam:flot - sam,[音:‘flɑ?ts?m],(flow - n.),n:(遇難船的)漂流貨物,漂流物,不值錢的零碎物,無業游民;
     
    abundant:ab - und - ant,(from - overfow - adj.),adj:大量的,充足的; {abandon:v:放棄,拋棄,放縱;n:放縱;}
    undulate:und - ul - ate,[音:‘?nd??le?t],(flow -  - v.),v:(使)波動,(使)起伏,(使)震動;adj:波動的,起伏的;
    abound:ab - (o)und,[音:?‘ba?nd],(from - overflow),v:富于,充斥,充滿;
    inundate:in - und - ate,[音:‘?n?nde?t],(in - overflow - v.),v:浸水,向泛濫,淹沒;
    redundant:re(d) - und - ant,[音:r?‘d?nd?nt],(again - overflow - adj.),adj:多余的,過多的,累贅的,冗長的,解雇的,重復的,千篇一律的;
     
    motor:mot - or,(move - n.),n:馬達;
    mob:mob,[音:mɑ?b],(move),n:暴民,一伙,[貶]民眾;vt:大舉包圍,蜂擁而入;
    mobility:mob - il - ity,[音:mo?‘b?l?ti],(move -  - n.),n:機動性,流動性,情感不定;
    mobilize:mob - il - ize,[音:‘mo?b?la?z],(move -  - v.),v:動員,調動,使移動,使流通;vi:動員起來;
    automobile:auto - mob - ile,[音:‘??t?m?bi?l],(self - move - n.),n:汽車;adj:汽車的;
    immobilize:im - mob - il - ize,[音:?‘mo?b?la?z],(not - move -  - v.),v:使不能(調)動,使固定,<經濟學>使硬幣抽回,使流動資本轉為固定資本;
    momentum:mo(ve) - ment - um,[音:mo?‘ment?m],(move -  - n.),n:動力,勢頭,慣性,<物理>動量;
    remove:re - move,(away - move),v:移除,除去;
    motivation:mot - iv - at - ion,[音:?m??t?‘ve??n],(move -  -  - n.),n:動機(指讓人激發士氣的動機),動力,激發動機,誘導,刺激,積極性;
    motive:mot - ive,(move - n.),n:動機,目的,主題;adj:發動的,運動的,動機的;vt:促使;
    demote:de - mote,[音:?di?‘mo?t],(down - move),v:降級,降職;
    emotion:e(x) - mot - ion,(out - move - n.),n:情感,情緒;
    promotion:pro - mot - ion,(foward - move - n.),n:提升,促進,晉升,促銷;
     
    conversation:con - vers - at -ion,(together - change -  - n.),n:會話;
    versatile:vers - at - ile,[音:‘v??rs?tl],(change -  - adj.),adj:多才多藝的,通用的,多功能的;
    verse: verse,(turn),n:韻文,詩句,詩;vi:作詩;vt:詩化,在詩中表現,對……精通;
    versed:vers - ed,[音:v??rst],(turn - adj.),adj:熟練的,精通的,造詣深的;
    version:vers - ion,(change - n.),n:版本;
    adverse:ad - verse,[音:‘ædv??rs],(to - turn),a:不利的,逆向的,有害的;
    adversity:ad - vers - ity,(to - turn - n.),n:逆境,不幸,災難;
    anniversary:anni - vers - ary,(year - turn - n.),n:周年紀念,周年紀念日;
    conversely:con - verse - ly,[音:‘kɑ?nv??rsli],(加強語氣 - turn - adv.),adv:相反地;
    controversy:contro - vers - y,[音:‘k?ntr??v??s?],(against - turn - n.),n:爭議,爭執,(公開的)爭論;
    diversion:di - vers - ion,[音:d?‘v??r?n],(away - turn - n.),n:消遣,娛樂活動,轉移,轉向,臨時繞行;
    diverse:di - verse,(two - change),adj:不同的,多種多樣的;
    inverse:in - verse,(in - turn),adj:相反的,傾倒的,倒轉的;n:倒數,相反的事物,(數學)逆反函數,負數;
    perverse:per - verse,[音:p?r‘v??rs],(thoroughly - change),adj:有悖常理的,任性的,固執錯誤的,故意作對的,變態的; {thoroughly:[音:‘θ??r?li];adv:徹底地,完全,非常;}
    reverse:re - verse,(back - trun),v:相反,逆轉,互換,改變,倒退;ajd:顛倒的,相反的,反面的;n:相反,背面,失敗,倒檔;
    universe:uni - verse,(one - turn),n:宇宙;
    vertebrate:verte - brate,[音:‘v??rt?br?t],(turn - n.[adj.]),n:脊椎動物;adj:脊椎的,脊椎動物的;
    vertiginous:vert - igi - ous,[音:v??r‘t?d??n?s],(turn - go - adj.),adj:頭暈目眩的,旋轉的,眼花的;
    vertigo:vert - igo,(turn - go),n:暈眩,暈眩癥;
    avert:a(b) - vert,(away - turn),v:避免,躲開,防止;
    convert:con - vert,(加強語氣 - change),v:轉換,轉化,換算,兌換,(使)轉變,(使)改變信仰,轉變;n:皈依者,改變信仰的人;
    divert:di - vert,(away - turn),v:轉移,娛樂;
    extrovert:extro - vert,[音:‘ekstr?v??rt],(outward - turn),n:性格外向的人;{outward:adj:向外的,表面的,外部的;adv:向外,在外,表面;備注:= extravert;}
    invertebrate:in - verte - brate,[音:?n‘v??rt?br?t],(not - turn - n.[adj.]),n:無脊椎動物;adj:無脊椎的,無脊椎動物的;
    incontrovertible:in - contro - vert - ible,[音:??nkɑ?ntr?‘v??rt?bl],(not - against - turn - able),adj:無可辯駁的,不容置疑的;
    introverted:intro - vert - ed,[音:‘?ntr?v??rt?d],(inward - turn - ed),adj:(性格)內向的; {inward:adj:內部的,內心的,內向的,親密的;adv:內向;n:內部,內在;}
    perverted:per - vert - ed,[音:p?r‘v??rt?d],(加強語氣 - change - adj.),adj:行為反常的,不正當的,變態的;
    revert:re - vert,(back - turn),v:恢復,回到,回復,歸還;
    subvert:sub - vert,[音:s?b‘v??rt],(under - turn),v:顛覆,推翻,毀滅,使敗壞;
     
    various:vari - ous,[音:‘veri?s],(change - adj.),adj:各種的,好幾個的;
    variable:vari - able,[音:‘veri?bl],(change - adj.[n.]),adj:可變的,易變的;n:變數,變量;
    variant:vari - ant,[音:‘veri?nt],(change - n.[adj.]),n:變體,變奏;adj:不同的;
    variation:vari - at - ion,[音:?veri‘e??n],(change -  - n.),n:變化;
    varied:vari - ed,[音:‘verid],(change - adj.),adj:有變化的,各式各樣的;
    variegated:vari - (e)g - at - ed,[音:‘ver?ɡe?t?d],(change - do -  - adj.),adj:雜色的,斑駁的,形形色色的;{variegate:[音:‘ver??ge?t];vt:使……多樣化,弄成雜色;}
    variety:vari - ety,[音:v?‘ra??ti],(change - n.),n:種類,多樣,多樣化,雜耍;
    vary:vary,[音:‘veri],(change),v:改變,變化,有不同,使多樣化;
    invariably:in - vari - ab - ly,[音:?n‘veri?bli],(not - change - able - adv),adv:一成不變地,一定是,總是,一貫地;
     
    reflect:re - flect,(back - bend),v:反射,反映;
    deflect:de - flect,(down - bend),v:使偏斜,擋開,使轉向,改變原計劃;
    genuflect:genu - flect,[音:‘d?enjuflekt],(knee - bend),v:屈膝,跪拜(尤指宗教儀式的),屈從;
    inflection:in - flect - ion,[音:?n‘flek?n],(in - bend - n.),n:字尾變化,屈曲,變調,音調變化;
    reflective:re - flect - ive,(back - bend - adj),adj:會反射的,反映的,思考的,沉思的;
    flex:flex,(bend),v:彎曲,伸縮,屈曲;n:花線,彎曲,彈性;
    flexible: flex - ible,[音:‘fleks?bl],(bend - able),adj:柔韌的,靈活的,有彈性的,易彎曲的,可變通的;
    flexor:flex - or,(bend - one who),n:屈肌;
    flextime:flex - time,[音:‘fleksta?m],(bend - time),n:彈性工作時間制;
    inflexible:in - flex - ible,(not - bend - able),adj:不容變更的,不可彎曲的,僵硬的,頑固的,不可改變的;
    reflex:re - flex,(back - bend),n:反射作用,映像;adj:反射的;
     
    torture:tort - ure,[音:‘t??rt??r],(twist - n.[v.]),n:折磨,用刑;v:折磨,用刑;
    tortuous:tort - uous,[音:‘t??rt?u?s],(twist - adj.),adj:彎曲的,曲折的,轉彎抹角的;
    contort:con - tort,[音:k?n‘t??rt],(加強語氣 - twist),v:(使)扭曲,走樣,曲解;
    distort:dis - tort,[音:d?‘st??rt],(away - twist),vt:歪曲,扭曲,變形;vi:歪曲;
    extortion:ex - tort - ion,[音:?k‘st???n],(out - twist - n.),n:勒索,強取,敲詐,非法斂財;
    retort:re - tort,[音:r?‘t??rt],(back - twist),v:反駁,回嘴,反擊;n:反駁,頂嘴;
    torsion:tors - ion,[音:‘t??r?n],(twist - n.),n:扭轉,扭力;
     
    complicated:com - plic - ate - d,[音:‘kɑ?mpl?ke?t?d],(together - fold -  -adj.),adj:復雜的;
    pleat:ple - at,[音:pli?t],(fold - n.),n:褶,褶狀物;v:打褶;
    perplexing:per - plex - ing,[音:p?‘pleks??],(加強語氣 - fold - adj.),adj:令人困惑的,麻煩復雜的;
    triple:tri - ple,(three - fold),adj:三重的;v:(使)成三倍;
    quadruplet:quadru - plet,[音:‘kwɑ?dr?pl?t],(four - fold),n:成套的四件東西,四胞胎中之一,[音]四連音;
    duplicate:du - plic - ate,[音:‘du?pl?k?t],(two - fold - n.[adj.、v.]),n:復制品,副本;adj:復制的,完全一樣的;v:復制,重復;
    explicit:ex - plic - it,[音:?k‘spl?s?t],(out - fold - adj.),adj:明確的,清晰的,清楚的,明明白白的,露骨的,[計]顯示的;
    implicate:im - plic - ate,[音:‘?mpl?ke?t],(not - fold - v.),v:牽涉,涉及,意味著,暗示;
    implicit:im - plic - it,[音:?m‘pl?s?t],(not - fold - adj.),adj:含蓄的,暗示的,絕對的,無疑問的,固有的,無保留的,[計]隱示的;
    inexplicable:in - ex - plic - able,[音:??nek‘spl?k?bl]],(not - out - fold - able),adj:無法說明的,無法解釋的,費解的;
    replica:re - plic - a,[音:‘repl?k?],(again - fold - n.),n:復制品;
    pliable:pli - able,[音:‘pla??bl],(fold - able),adj:易曲折的,柔軟的,圓滑的,可塑的;
    pliers:pli - ers,[音:‘pla??rz],(fold - n.),n:鉗子;
    plywood:ply - wood,[音:‘pla?w?d],(fold - wood),n:夾板,合板;
    imply:im - ply,[音:?m‘pla?],(in - fold),vt:暗示,意指,含有……的意義;
    multiply:multi - ply,(many - fold),v:繁殖,繁衍,乘;adv:多樣地,多重地;
    reply:re - ply,(back - fold),n:回答,答復;v:回答,答復,回應;
     
    decline:de - cline,(down - slope),n:婉拒,下坡;v:婉拒,下坡;
    disinclined:dis - in - clin - ed,[音:?d?s?n‘kla?nd],(not - in - slope - adj.),adj:不愿的,不想的;
    inclination:in - clin - at - ion,[音:??nkl?‘ne??n],(in - lean -  - n.),n:傾向,意愿,趨勢,斜坡,傾斜度;
    incline:in - cline,[音:?n‘kla?n],(in - lean),v:傾斜,斜坡,斜面,傾向;v:(使)傾向于,向前彎,(使)傾斜;
    recline:re - cline,[音:[r?‘kla?n],(back - lean),v:躺,靠在,斜倚,倚靠,依賴;
    recliner:re - clin - er,[音:r?‘kla?n?r],(back - lean - one who),n:(裝有軟墊的)躺椅,傾斜物,斜靠著的人;
    acclivity:ac(ad) - cliv - ity,[音:?‘kl?v?t?],(to - slope - n.),n:向上的陡坡;
    declivity:de - cliv - ity,[音:d?‘kl?v?t?],(down - slope - n.),n:傾斜面,斜坡;
    proclivity:pro - cliv - ity,[音:pr?‘kl?v?ti],(forward - lean - n.),n:傾向,先天的喜好,癖性;
    cliff:cliff,(slope),n:懸崖;
     
    energy:en - erg - y,(make - work - n.),n:能量;
    ergonomics:ergo - nom - ics,[音:???rɡ?‘nɑ?m?ks],(work - law - n.),n:人體工程學,工作環境改造學;
    allergic:all - erg - ic,[音:?‘l??rd??k],(other - work - adj.),adj:過敏的,反感的;
    energetic:en - erg - et - ic,[音:?en?r‘d?et?k],(make - work -  - adj.),adj:精力旺盛的,有力的,能量的;
    synergy:syn - erg - y,[音:‘s?n?rd?i],(together - work - n.),n:協同作用,增效作用;
    organ:org - an,[音:‘??rɡ?n],(work - n.),n:器官,風琴,機構,喉舌,報刊;
    organic:org - an - ic,[音:??r‘ɡæn?k],(work -  - adj.),adj:器官的,有機的,有組織的,根本的,接近自然的;n:有機物質;
    urge:urge,(work),n:沖動,強烈愿望;vt:驅策,鼓勵,催促,力陳;vi:極力主張;
    urgent:urg - ent,(work - adj.),adj:緊急的,急迫的,堅持要求的;
    }
     
    技術分享
    [2.5] 本小節示例及練習
    Medical students must practice surgery by dissecting cadavers. {dissect:[音:d?‘sekt];v:解剖,切細,仔細研究,詳細分析;}
    Walt Whitman‘s poetry is easy to recognize because of its characteristic cadence. {Walt Whitman:n:惠特曼;}
    Russian Communists used to regard sex and violence on U.S. television as signs of Western decadence. {communist:[音:‘kɑ?mj?n?st];adj:共產主義的;n:共產主義;Communists:n:共產檔員;used to:過去常常;regard:v:視為,尊敬,注視,留意,和……有關;n:關心,尊敬,注意,致意,考慮;sign:n:跡象,手勢,招牌,符號,正負號;v:簽,簽名,做手勢,做標記;}
    Her cascade of hair got her into the shampoo commercial. {a cascade of:adj:瀑布般的;shampoo:[音:?æm‘pu?];n:洗發劑,洗滌劑,洗頭;vt:洗(頭發,地毯等);commercial:n:商業廣告;adj:商業的;}
    It‘s not a formal party, so you may come in casual wear.
    Iraq sustained heavy casualties during the Gulf War. {sustain:[音:s?‘ste?n];vt:經受,支持,承受,維持;sustained:adj:持久的,經久不衰的;gulf:[音:ɡ?lf];n:海灣,鴻溝;vt:吞沒;the Gulf War:n:海灣戰爭;}
    College graduation is an important occasion in one‘s life. {college:n:大學,學院,學校,社團;}
    By coincidence, six bus loads of tourists arrived at the scenic spot at the same time. {scenic:[音:‘si?n?k];adj:風景好的,戲劇性的;spot:n:地點,場所,職位,污點,斑點,聚光燈;adj:現場的,現貨的,插播的;v:(使)產生污漬,電務,認出,用燈光照射;}
    A deciduous tree loses most or all of its leaves in the fall.
    If you want to mention something interesting but not quite relevant to your topic, you might start by saying ""Incidentally. {relevant:adj:相關的,切題的,中肯的,有重大關系的,有意義的,目的明確的;}
    The occident, as opposed to the orient, literally means "Where the sun goes down". {oppose:v:反對,對抗,使對立;orient:[音:‘??ri?nt];n:東方,亞洲;adj:東方的;vt:使適應,使……朝向,定……的方位;literally:[音:‘l?t?r?li];adv:逐字地,按照字面上地,不夸張的,正確地,簡直;}
    If not properly refrigerated, leftover food decays quickly in the summer.  {refrigerated:[音:r?f‘r?d??re?t?d];adj:冷凍的,冷卻的;leftover:n:剩飯,殘留物;adj:殘余的;}
    
    The symphony is drawing to a close, and entering the grand finale. {symphony:n:交響樂;draw to:逼近,接近;grand:adj:重大的,豪華的,宏偉的,壯麗的;n:大鋼琴,一千美元;}
    After months of negotiation, the contract was finalized last week.
    The diplomatic negotiations over this sensitive issue require a fair amount of finesse. {diplomatic:adj:外交的,古字體的,老練的;fair:adj:相當的,美麗的,公平的,晴朗的,(皮膚、毛發等)淺色的,白皙的;n:展覽會,市集;adv:公平地,直接地;amount:n:數量,總額;vi:總計,等于;}
    That finicky customer is driving the salesclerk crazy. {salesclerk:[音:se?lz?kl??k];n:售貨員;}
    Everyone is given a finite amount of time in life, so we might as well make the most of it. {as well:也,又;make the most of it:v:充分利用;}
    The patient was confined to bed throughout his hospital stay. {throughout:prep:遍及,貫穿;adv:自始至終,到處;}
    You can find the definition of this term in the dictionary. {term:n:術語,學期,條件,條款,期限,名詞;vt:把……稱為;}
    That Nobel laureate wrote the definitive work on cloning. {翻譯:那位諾貝爾獎得主寫了有關復制生物的權威著作。laureate:[音:‘l??ri?t];n:桂冠詩人,得獎人;}
    The number of starts in the universe seems infinite.
    His refined manners show that he is no mere peasant. {mere:[音:mir];adj:僅僅的,純粹的;merely:adv:僅僅,只不過;mare:[音:mer];n:母馬,母驢,(月球等)表面的陰暗處;peasant:[音:‘peznt];n:農民;}
    
    The Monica Lewinsky case threatened to keep Clinton from completing his second term in office. {翻譯:辦公室性騷擾萊溫斯基案可能讓克林頓提前結束他的第二任任期。Lewinsky:n:萊溫斯基;threaten:v:似將發生,威脅,恐嚇;keep from:v:阻止,妨礙;}
    This hospice accepts terminal cancer patients. {hospice:[音:‘hɑ?sp?s];n:(宗教團體等所辦的)旅客住宿處,(晚期病人)護理所;}
    The contract, if not extended, will terminate at midnight tomorrow. {extend:v:延伸,延長,伸展,擴展,提供,使竭盡全力;}
    This introductory course familiarizes students with the basic terminology of the subject. {introductory:adj:介紹的,引導的,開端的;familiarize:[音:f?‘m?li?ra?z];vt:使熟悉;}
    There will be plenty of seats if you board the bus at the terminus. {plenty:n:豐富,大量,充足;adj:充足的,相當多的;adv:非常,充分;}
    The conterminous U.S. does not include Hawaii or Alaska. {翻譯:所謂[接壤的美國]不包括夏威夷和阿拉斯加。}
    It has proved difficult to keep cockroaches out of the house, much less exterminate them. {翻譯:要讓屋里沒有蟑螂已經很不容易了,更別說要消減他們了。cockroach:[音:‘kɑ?kro?t?];n:蟑螂;keep out:v:不許入內,擋在外邊;much less:adv:更不必說,何況,更少;}
    I‘ ll be visiting in the U.S. for an indeterminate period of time. {翻譯:我將在美國訪問多久還不一定。備注:visiting表示我將訪問,visited表示我被訪問;}
    Marriages predetermined by parents are not so common now. {common:adj:常見的,共同的,普通的,平常的,平凡的;n:普通,公地,平民,公園;}
    
    Khaki is a durable fabric that is widely used for uniforms. {Khaki:[音:‘kɑ?ki];n:卡其布,土黃色;adj:卡其布的,土黃色的;fabric:n:織物,結構,構造;}
    The teacher asked her students to remain attentive for the duration of the class. {attentive:adj:注意的,留意的;備注:remain類似于keep,后接形容詞。}
    A contract signed under duress is invalid. {invalid:adj:無效的,病弱的;n:病人,殘疾者;vt:退役,遣送回家;}
    How can Jane, a proud woman herself, endure the overbearing ways of her husband? {翻譯:珍妮自己是個自傲的女人,怎么能夠忍受她賬戶囂張的作風?overbearing:adj:傲慢的,驕傲自大的,蠻橫的;}
    By willingly leaving the presidency after two terms, George Washington made an enduring contribution to his country. {willingly:adv:樂意地,心甘情愿地;presidency:n:總統(總裁、主席等)的職位(或任期);}
    Scrooge, the obdurate miser in A Christmas Carol, is finally moved by the Christmas spirit to acts of charity. {Scrooge:n:史克魯基;scrooge:[音:skru?d?];n:吝嗇鬼;miser:[音:‘ma?z?r];n:守財奴,吝嗇鬼;A christmas Carol:n:《小氣財神》;move:v:使……感動;charity:n:慈善,寬厚,慈善機關(團體),仁慈;}
    
    Normal fluctuations in stock prices are nothing to worry about.
    I‘ m fluent in written and spoken English.
    Honey is a viscous fluid. {honey:n:蜂蜜,甜蜜,寶貝;v:說甜言蜜語;adj:甜蜜的,親愛的;viscous:[音:‘v?sk?s];adj:粘的,粘性的;}
    you can flush dead cockroaches down the toilet. {翻譯:死蟑螂可以丟馬桶沖掉。}
    The Tai-Ex has been in a state of flux for months. {翻譯:臺灣股市最近幾個月都處于動蕩中。Tai-Ex:n:臺灣股市;}
    The U.S.A is one of the most affluent societies in the world. {society:n:社會;社團,協會,社交圈;}
    Towns often flourish at the confluence of two rivers. {翻譯:兩條河的匯流處常有市鎮興起。flourish:[音:‘fl?r??];v:茂盛,繁榮,揮舞,活躍;n:揮舞,花樣,炫耀,華麗辭藻;}
    The EPA has sent someone to take samples from the factory effluents for analysis. {EPA:n:環保署(Environment Protect Agency);analysis:n:分析,解析,化驗;}
    The Speaker of the House is a highly influential personage in Congress. {The Speaker of the House:n:眾議院議長(發言人);personage:[音:‘p??rs?n?d?];n:名流,要人,人物,角色;Congress:n:國會(美),代表大會,議會,立法機關;}
    Should  famine break out in China, there would be an influx of refugees to Southeast Asian countries. {翻譯:中國要是爆發饑荒,難民會涌入東南亞各國。famine:[音:‘fæm?n];n:饑荒,極度缺乏;break out:v:(戰爭、火宅等)爆發,逃脫;refugee:[音:?refju‘d?i?];n:難民;}
    Online shopping might one day make bookstores superfluous.
    Sailing near Antarctica, you can see giant ice floes passing by. {在南極洲附近航行,可看到巨大的浮冰流過。Antarctica:n:南極洲;}
    A flotilla of fishing boats plies the waters around Taiwan. {ply:[音:pla?];v:定期往返,辛勤地做,不斷做,不斷供應,使膠合;n:一層,一般,厚度,褶;備注:waters是復數,是指四周的水域。}
    After a typhoon, seaside residents often go to the beaches to pick up flotsam and jetsam. {jetsam:[音:‘d?ets?m];n:拋棄的貨物,漂流物,廢棄物;}
    
    From the top of the hill, you can see undulating fields stretching to the horizon. {翻譯:站在山丘上,你可以看到起伏的原野延綿到天邊。field:n:原野,田地,田野,領域,(Java)范疇;vt:接球,派……上場,順利處理;vi:擔任外場員;adj:田間的,野外的;stretch:[音:stret?];v:伸展,延伸,張開,夸大;n:伸展,張開,彈性,一段時間,<俚>刑期;adj:可伸縮的;horizon:n:地平線,眼界,范圍;}
    The waters around Taiwan abound in fish. {waters:n:水域;}
    Millions of acres of land were inundated in last year‘s Yangtze River floods. {acre:[音:‘e?k?r];n:英畝;flood:n:洪水;}
    The word "most" in the expression "most extreme" is quite redundant. {extreme:adj:極度的,極端的;n:極端,極限;}
    
    During the anti-Chinese riots in Indonesia, mobs looted Chinese stores and raped Chinese women. {riot:[音:‘ra??t];n:暴亂,騷亂,喧鬧,(色彩)豐富,<俚>有趣的人;v:鬧事,騷亂;Indonesia:[音:??nd?‘ni???];n:印度尼西亞;loot:[音:lu?t];v:搶奪,洗劫;n:掠奪品,贓物,<俚>錢;}
    Automobiles allow people a great degree of mobility. {翻譯:汽車給予我們很大的機動性。allow:v:讓某人得到,給予;}
    In the event of war, all reserve officers will be mobilized. {event:n:大事,事件,項目;reserve:n:候補,預備品,貯存,含蓄,克制;vt:保留,預訂,延期;}
    Detroit is famous for its automobile industry. {Detroid:[音:d?‘tr???t];n:底特律(美國城市);}
    Finding herself face to face with a grizzly bear, the little girl was immobilized with fear. {grizzly:[音:‘gr?zl?];adj:灰(白)色的,灰白的;n:灰熊,格篩;}
    The environmental movement has built up a lot of momentum during these past two years. {翻譯:環保運動這兩年來積累了不小的動力。movement:[音:‘mu?vm?nt];n:運動,活動,動作,[音]樂章;build up:vt:積累,建立,逐步增長,增進,加強;}
    The new detergent claims to remove all kinds of stains. {detergent:[音:d?‘t??rd??nt];n:清潔劑;adj:用于清洗的;claim:vt:聲稱,主張,要求,斷言,;n:聲稱,主張,要求,要求權,斷言,要求物;stain:[音:ste?n];n:污點,瑕疵,著色劑,染料;v:弄臟,玷污,著色;}
    Motivation is an important consideration in designing any kind of teaching material. {consideration:n:考慮,體貼,考慮因素,敬重,意見;}
    Te police said that money was the motive behind the homicide. {homicide:[音:‘hɑ?m?sa?d];n:殺人,殺人者;}
    When the conservative party moved in, many liberals were dumped or demoted. {conservative:[音:k?n‘s??rv?t?v];adj:保守的,守舊的;n:保守派(黨),保守的人;move in:上臺,搬進,遷入;liberal:n:自由主義者,開明的人;adj:慷慨的,大方的,開明的,自由主義的;liberals:n:自由派;dump:vt:拋棄,傾倒,傾銷,拋售,傾卸,[計]轉儲;vi:傾倒,突然落下;n:垃圾場,軍需供應站;}
    I have mixed emotions about the election results. {翻譯:我對選舉結果, 感覺上有點兒矛盾。}
    The company is giving away free samples as part of its summer promotion. {give away:vi:贈送,送出,背叛,泄露;}
    
    Leonardo Da Vinci was a versatile man who painted, made sculptures, and invented useful machines. {Leonardo Da Vinci:n:萊昂納多·達·芬奇(1452-1519,意大利文藝復興時期的大畫家、雕刻家、建主學家);sculpture:[音:‘sk?lpt??r];n:雕塑,雕刻;v:雕刻,雕塑,刻蝕,當雕刻師;invent:vt:發明,捏造;}
    Shakespeare‘ s plays are all written in blank verse. {blank:adj:空白的,茫然的,空白,空白處;blank verse:n:無韻詩,素體詩;}
    The new ambassador is well versed in the art of diplomacy. {ambassador:[音:æm‘bæs?d?r];n:大使,代表;diplomacy:n:外交;}
    The standard version of the Bible is the 1611 King James Bible. {圣經的標準版是一六一一年的詹姆士國王版。}
    Abraham Lincoln was a self-made man who rose above adverse circumstances. {self-made:adj:自造的,自力更生的,獨立奮斗的;rise above:v:克服,不受……的影響,出類拔萃;circumstance:n:環境,詳情,事件,(復數)境況;}
    The Bible can be a source of inspiration in the face of adversity. {翻譯:面對逆境時,圣經可以提供啟示的泉源。inspiration:[音:??nsp?‘re??n];n:鼓舞人心(的東西),吸氣,靈感;}
    The Mercury department store is holding an anniversary sale. {mercury:n:水星,精神,水銀;department store:n:百貨商場;}
    The merger may save the company, or conversely, it may destroy it. {merger:n:(企業等的)合并;v:(兩個或以上公司的)合并;}
    There has been a lot of controversy surrounding the project for a fourth nuclear power plant. {surround:vt:包圍,環繞;n:環繞物;four nuclear power plant:n:核四廠計劃;}
    After a week of monotonous work, many people go to the amusement park on the weekend as a means of diversion. {monotonous:[音:m?‘nɑ?t?n?s];adj:單調的;amusement:[音:?‘mju?zm?nt];n:樂趣,娛樂,消遣;amusement park:n:游樂場;means:n:方法,手段,收入,財產;}
    One‘ s life expectancy is inverse ratio to the number of cigarettes one smokes. {expectancy:[音:?k‘spekt?nsi];n:期待,預期;ratio:[音:‘re??io?];n:比率,比例;}
    In a perverse way, banning a book may make it the hottest item on the black marker. {ban:v:禁止,剝奪權利;n:禁令,禁止;}
    You need to shift into reverse before you can back the car into the garage. {shift into:n:轉移進……;reverse:n:倒檔;garage:n:汽車修理廠,車庫;}
    If the universe is as large as scientists say it is, there must be extraterrestrial life somewhere. {extraterrestrial:[音:?ekstr?t?‘restri?l];adj:地球(或大氣圈)外的,行星際的;n:外星人;}
    Blue whales are huge vertebrates, larger even than the greatest of the dinosaurs. {whale:[音:we?l];n:鯨;vi:捕鯨;v:打擊;}
    Goats can run down vertiginous mountain slopes without any difficulty. {翻譯:山羊可以毫無苦難地從令人頭暈目眩的山坡上跑下來。run down:v:跑下來,撞倒,貶低,追捕,查出,(使)筋疲力竭;slope:n:傾斜,斜面,斜率,斜線;vt:使傾斜;vi:傾斜,有坡度;}
    Looking down from the edge of the cliff, the mountaineer felt a giddy sense of vertigo. {登山客從懸崖邊上往下看,感到一陣暈眩。cliff:n:懸崖,峭壁;mountaineer:n:登山家,山地人;giddy:[音:‘ɡ?di];adj:眼花的,頭暈的,輕率的,輕浮的;v:(使)眼花